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Fotocatálisis Heterogénea: Aplicaciones

Evaluation of Pt/TiO2-Nb2O5 systems in the photocatalytic reforming of glucose for the generation of H2 from industrial effluents

Lara Sandoval, AE; Serafin, J; Murcia Mesa, JJ; Rojas Sarmiento, HA; Hernandez Niño, JS; Llorca, J; Navío Santos, JA; Hidalgo Lõpez; MC
Fuel, 363 (2024) 130932

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Different Pt-TiO2-Nb2O5 systems were synthesized and studied in the photocatalytic reforming of glucose for the generation of H2. The physicochemical properties of the synthesized photocatalysts were analyzed using different characterization techniques from which it was found that fluoridation and sulphation have different effects on the oxides under study such as a protective effect on the crystalline phase in anatase, and greater response in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The addition of fluorine or sulfates favors the reduction of platinum species on the surface of the semiconductor oxides and a better homogeneity of size and distribution of the particles of this metal. Studies were carried out in the gas phase that allowed the monitoring and quantification of the hydrogen produced from aqueous glucose solutions and it was determined that Pt-F-Nb2O5 and Pt-F-TiO2 are the most efficient materials for the production of hydrogen from this substrate. Similarly, liquid phase studies were carried out with a real sample from a confectionery industry where it was determined that with the material Pt-F-Nb2O5 the highest transformation of glucose is obtained, without the formation of any other sugar or intermediate compound, indicating the preferential production of hydrogen during the photocatalytic reaction. The foregoing demonstrates the potential of the evaluated process in obtaining this gas from the recovery of polluting residues derived from the samples under study.

Mayo, 2024 | DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2024.130932

Materiales Ópticos Multifuncionales

Exciton-carrier coupling in a metal halide perovskite nanocrystal assembly probed by two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy

Rojas-Gatjens, E; Tiede, DO; Koch, KA; Romero-Perez, C; Galisteo-López, JF; Calvo, ME; Míguez, H; Kandada, ARS
Journal of Physics-Materials, 7 (2024) 025002

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The surface chemistry and inter-connectivity within perovskite nanocrystals play a critical role in determining the electronic interactions. They manifest in the Coulomb screening of electron-hole correlations and the carrier relaxation dynamics, among other many-body processes. Here, we characterize the coupling between the exciton and free carrier states close to the band-edge in a ligand-free formamidinium lead bromide nanocrystal assembly via two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy. The optical signatures observed in this work show: (i) a nonlinear spectral lineshape reminiscent of Fano-like interference that evidences the coupling between discrete electronic states and a continuum, (ii) symmetric excited state absorption cross-peaks that suggest the existence of a coupled exciton-carrier excited state, and (iii) ultrafast carrier thermalization and exciton formation. Our results highlight the presence of coherent coupling between exciton and free carriers, particularly in the sub-100 femtosecond timescales.

Abril, 2024 | DOI: 10.1088/2515-7639/ad229a

Química de Superficies y Catálisis

A profitability study for catalytic ammonia production from renewable landfill biogas: Charting a route for the next generation of green ammonia

González-Arias, J; Nawaz, MA; Vidal-Barrero, F; Reina, TR
Fuel, 360 (2024) 130584

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This study introduces a novel techno-economic approach to renewable ammonia production using landfill biogas. The proposed process involves bio-hydrogen generation from landfill biogas, nitrogen production via air separation, and the Haber-Bosch process. Building on our prior research, which demonstrated the economic competitiveness of renewable hydrogen production from landfill gas, we extend our investigation to analyze the feasibility of producing renewable ammonia from biogas-derived bio-hydrogen. However, the economic analysis for the baseline scenario reveals the current lack of profitability (net present value of −18.3 M€), with ammonia prices needing to quadruple to achieve profitability. Major costs, including investment, maintenance, overhead expenses, and electricity, collectively account for over 70%, suggesting the potential efficacy of investment subsidies as a political tool. Only cases with subsidies exceeding 50% of total investment costs, under current ammonia market prices, would render the green ammonia route profitable. Our findings underscore the significant techno-economic challenges in realizing renewable ammonia production, emphasizing the need for innovation in process engineering and catalytic technologies to enable competitive and scalable green ammonia production.

Marzo, 2024 | DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2023.130584

Materiales Avanzados

Synthesis and characterization of porous and photocatalytic geopolymers based on natural clay: Enhanced properties and efficient Rhodamine B decomposition

Ettahiri, Y; Bouna, L: Brahim, A; Benlhachemi, A; Bakiz, B; Sánchez-Soto, PJ; Eliche-Quesada, D; Pérez-Villarejo, L
Applied Materials Today, 36 (2024) 102048

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In this work, the incorporation of anatase TiO2 semiconductor in the geopolymer matrix as catalytic materials has been studied. The most noteworthy results obtained from the synthesis of a novel TiO2/geopolymer nanocomposite as an effective ecological catalyst with high thermal stability and significant porosity is presented. The porous and photocatalytic geopolymers based natural clay rich in pyrophyllite and kaolinite minerals were prepared by simple method, the geopolymerization reaction was able to successfully load TiO2 nanoparticles into the geopolymer surface. Furthermore, the results indicate that the prepared catalyst achieved the best performance to degrade Rhodamine B (RhB) molecules present in aqueous solution under UV light irradiation. The geopolymer matrix proved to be a reusable support for TiO2 nanoparticles during the photocatalytic process, efficiently facilitating the separation of photogenerated charges. Finally, the physicochemical and morphological properties of the samples was characterized by several techniques, namely X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (TGA/DTA), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm analysis (BET and BJH methods), UV–Vis Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled to an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analyzer and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

Febrero, 2024 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apmt.2023.102048

Química de Superficies y Catálisis

Renewable Carbonaceous Materials from Biomass in Catalytic Processes: A Review

Villora-Picó, JJ; González-Arias, J; Baena-Moreno, FM; Reina, TR
Materials, 17 (2024) 565

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This review paper delves into the diverse ways in which carbonaceous resources, sourced from renewable and sustainable origins, can be used in catalytic processes. Renewable carbonaceous materials that come from biomass-derived and waste feedstocks are key to developing more sustainable processes by replacing traditional carbon-based materials. By examining the potential of these renewable carbonaceous materials, this review aims to shed light on their significance in fostering environmentally conscious and sustainable practices within the realm of catalysis. The more important applications identified are biofuel production, tar removal, chemical production, photocatalytic systems, microbial fuel cell electrodes, and oxidation applications. Regarding biofuel production, biochar-supported catalysts have proved to be able to achieve biodiesel production with yields exceeding 70%. Furthermore, hydrochars and activated carbons derived from diverse biomass sources have demonstrated significant tar removal efficiency. For instance, rice husk char exhibited an increased BET surface area from 2.2 m2/g to 141 m2/g after pyrolysis at 600 °C, showcasing its effectiveness in adsorbing phenol and light aromatic hydrocarbons. Concerning chemical production and the oxidation of alcohols, the influence of biochar quantity and pre-calcination temperature on catalytic performance has been proven, achieving selectivity toward benzaldehyde exceeding 70%.

Febrero, 2024 | DOI: 10.3390/ma17030565