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2020


ICTAC Kinetics Committee recommendations for analysis of multi-step kinetics


Vyazovkin, S; Burnham, AK; Favergeon, L; Koga, N; Moukhina, E; Perez-Maqueda, LA; Sbirrazzuoli, N
Thermochimica Acta, 689 (2020) 178597
Reactividad de Sólidos

ABSTRACT

The present recommendations have been developed by the Kinetics Committee of the International Confederation for Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry (ICTAC). The recommendations provide guidance on kinetic analysis of multi-step processes as measured by thermal analysis methods such as thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Ways of detecting the multi-step kinetics are discussed first. Then, four different approaches to evaluation of kinetic parameters (the activation energy, the pre-exponential factor, and the reaction model) for individual steps are considered. The approaches considered include multi-step model-fitting as well as distributed reactivity, isoconversional, and deconvolution analyses. For each approach practical advice is offered on its effective usage. Due attention is also paid to the typical problems encountered and to the ways of resolving them. The objective of these recommendations is to help a non-expert with efficiently performing multi-step kinetic analysis and interpreting its results.


Julio, 2020 | DOI: 10.1016/j.tca.2020.178597

Sustainable, High-Barrier Polyaleuritate/Nanocellulose Biocomposites


Tedeschi, G; Guzman-Puyol, S; Ceseracciu, L; Benitez, JJ; Cataldi, P; Bissett, M; Heredia, A; Athanassiou, A; Heredia-Guerrero, JA
ACS Sistainable Chemistry & Engineering, 8 (2020) 10682-10690
Materiales de Diseño para la Energía y Medioambiente

ABSTRACT

Free-standing and flexible biocomposite films formed by a polyaleuritate matrix and nanocellulose fillers (i.e., cellulose nanofibrils) have been fabricated by a sustainable process. For this, 9,10,16-trihydroxyhexadecanoic (aleuritic) acid from shellac and nanocellulose were blended at different ratios in water through a sonication process. Polymerization of the polyhydroxylated fatty acid into polyaleuritate was induced by a solvent-free, melting polycondensation reaction in the oven. These biocomposites were characterized to evaluate their chemical (by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy) and physical (e.g., density, thermal stability, rigidity, gas permeability, surface energy, etc.) properties. The compatibility between the polyester matrix and the polysaccharide fillers was excellent due to the interaction by H bonds of the polar groups of both components. The addition of nanocellulose increased all determined mechanical parameters as well as the wettability and the barrier properties, while the thermal stability and the water uptake were determined by the polyaleuritate matrix. The physical properties of these biocomposites were compared to those of petroleum-based plastics and bio-based polymers, indicating that the developed materials can represent a sustainable alternative for different applications such as packaging.


Julio, 2020 | DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.0c00909

Evaluation of the Oxygen Mobility in CePO4-Supported Catalysts: Mechanistic Implications on the Water-Gas Shift Reaction


Navarro-Jaen, S; Bobadilla, LF; Romero-Sarria, F; Laguna, OH; Bion, N; Odriozola, JA
Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 124 (2020) 16391-16401
Química de Superficies y Catálisis

ABSTRACT

The hexagonal and monoclinic phases of CePO4 have been demonstrated to be excellent catalytic supports for Pt-based water-gas shift (WGS) catalysts. Consequently, the elucidation of the WGS reaction mechanism in these materials constitutes a fundamental aspect in order to explain their catalytic behavior. Because the observed WGS reaction path is closely related to the absence or presence of oxygen vacancies in the support, the study of the oxygen mobility in these solids constitutes a key factor for the understanding of the structure of the materials and its influence on the reaction mechanism. In this study, the oxygen mobility in CePO4 supports and the corresponding Pt catalysts has been evaluated by means of isotopic exchange experiments using O-18(2) and (CO2)-O-18 as probe molecules. Results demonstrate that the evaluated solids present a low exchange activity when O-18(2) is used, indicating the absence of oxygen vacancies in these solids, thus suggesting a poor influence of the WGS redox mechanism. On the contrary, a high oxygen exchange activity is observed using (CO2)-O-18, demonstrating that the exchange in these materials takes place through the formation of carbonate-like intermediates, thus suggesting the associative mechanism of the WGS reaction as the preferred path in these solids. Operando diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy experiments under WGS reaction conditions confirm these results, proving that the WGS reaction in the studied materials takes place through a formate-mediated associative mechanism.


Julio, 2020 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c03649

Metal catalysts supported on biochars: Part I synthesis and characterization


Santos, JL; Maki-Arvela, P; Monzon, A; Murzin, DY; Centeno, MA
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 268 (2020) 118423
Química de Superficies y Catálisis

ABSTRACT

In the current study, synthesis and detailed characterization of cellulose biochars as a waste biomass model component and vine shoot biochars as a real waste biomass catalyst was performed. Although initially biochars exhibit poor textural properties, a simple activation process can make them much more suitable as a catalyst supports. A combination of physical (CO2) and chemical activation (ZnCl2) was evaluated. The characterization results indicated that the surface area and pore volume of the biochars have increased significantly by chemical activation treatment with ZnCl2. A series of metal catalysts (Pd, Au and Ru) supported on biochars was prepared and characterized. The prepared materials represent a set of noble metal catalysts supported on biochars with different textural and surface properties, which can be used to evaluate the catalytic role of the active phase and carbon support nature in catalytic reactions of interest, such as hydrodeoxygenation, described in the part II.


Julio, 2020 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2019.118423

Hydrodeoxygenation of vanillin over noble metal catalyst supported on biochars: Part II: Catalytic behaviour


Santos, JL; Maki-Arvela, P; Warna, J; Monzon, A; Centeno, MA; Murzin, DY
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 268 (2020) 118425
Química de Superficies y Catálisis

ABSTRACT

Vanillin hydrodeoxygenation was investigated using noble metal (Pd, Au, Ru) supported on active carbon prepared from waste derived biochars, which were produced via pyrolysis in CO2 atmosphere. Chemical activation with ZnCl2 and HNO3 was also used in the preparation of active carbon to enhance the specific surface area and demineralize material, respectively. Both fresh and spent catalysts were characterized with X-ray diffraction, DRIFTS, zeta potential measurement and HR-TEM. The highest selectivity to p-creosol, 92 % selectivity at complete vanillin conversion after 3 h was obtained in vanillin hydrodeoxygenation at 100 degrees C under 30 bar in hydrogen in water with Pd/C catalyst prepared via pyrolysis under CO2 from wine waste and using ZnCl2 as a chemical activation agent. Hydrodeoxygenation activity increased with increasing metal dispersion. A kinetic model including adsorption of vanillin described well the experimental data.


Julio, 2020 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2019.118425

Fast photodegradation of rhodamine B and caffeine using ZnO-hydroxyapatite composites under UV-light illumination


KarimTanji, J.A.Navio, Abdellah Chaqroune, Jamal Naja, F.Puga, M.C.Hidalgo, AbdelhakKherbeche
Catalysis Today, XXX (XXXX) XXX-XXX
Fotocatálisis Heterogénea: Aplicaciones

ABSTRACT

Zinc oxide-hydroxyapatite composites were prepared using wet impregnation method. Firstly, a natural phosphate ore rich in silica and calcium phosphate was sieved to separate silica phase from phosphate phase. Then, through a chemical precipitation method, a pure hydroxyapatite (HAP) was obtained, which was used as a support for ZnO immobilization and applied for the photodegradation of two toxic contaminants: a transparent molecule (caffeine) and dye molecule (rhodamine B). During the present work two weight ratio percentages of zinc oxide were used: 25 wt.% and 50 wt.% of ZnO relative to HAP. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), BET surface area (SBET), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDS) and by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM-STEM). The immobilization of ZnO on HAP surface followed by thermal treatment at 400 °C for 2 h to get a homogenous dispersion of ZnO on the hydroxyapatite support. At high ZnO impregnation percentage, photodegradation performances of ZnO-HAP under UV illumination were fast and superior than the ZnO photocatalyst alone. The results showed that due to the presence of HAP, the conversion of both molecules became faster and greater, since it promotes the synergic phenomena of adsorption and photocatalysis. The toxicity of the treated substrate solutions obtained in the corn kernels germination test indicated a low toxicity after the photodegradation processes, probably due to a high mineralization degree.


Julio, 2020 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cattod.2020.07.044

Performance trends in wall-flow diesel particulate filters: Comparative analysis of their filtration efficiency and pressure drop


Orihuela, MP; Chacartegui, R; Gomez-Martin, A; Ramirez-Rico, J; Villanueva, JAB
Journal of Cleaner Production, 60 (2020) 12063
Materiales de Diseño para la Energía y Medioambiente

ABSTRACT

Soot and particulate emissions from the transport sector are a major concern worldwide, given their harmful effects on public health and the environment. On-road vehicles are the main contributing source to this kind of pollution. They are strictly regulated in many countries, with limitations on the number and concentration of released particles, and they must be equipped with particle abatement systems. Wall-flow particulate filters are the most popular and effective devices to reduce particulate emissions from diesel and gasoline vehicles. Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) have been a recurrent research topic since the last century. There are different research studies analysing different aspects of these systems, at different levels, using different methodologies and different approaches. Their results are not always comparable. This work analyses the latest advances and trends in this technology by comparing two relevant performance parameters: their filtration efficiency and pressure drop. The findings of this study suggest that, in order to be competitive, upcoming DPFs should have filtration efficiencies above 80%, and pressure drops below 10 kPa, for space velocities of 1.5.10(5) h(-1) or more at the clean state. They should reach similar to 100% efficiency after a short operation period, before the soot load reaches 0.2 g/L. Later, they should keep a low pressure drop for a longer time, with a reference of no more than 13 kPa for 6 g/L of soot load. Based on this analysis, this work proposes some test criteria and suggestions for the main parameters. 


Julio, 2020 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.120863

Chemistry and Electrocatalytic Activity of Nanostructured Nickel Electrodes for Water Electrolysis


Lopez-Fernandez, E; Gil-Rostra, J; Espinos, JP; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Consuegra, AD; Yubero, F
ACS Catalysis, 10 (2020) 6159-6170
Nanotecnología en Superficies y Plasma

ABSTRACT

Herein we have developed nanostructured nickel-based electrode films for anion exchange membrane water electrolysis (AEMWE). The electrodes were prepared by magnetron sputtering (MS) in an oblique angle configuration and under various conditions aimed at preparing metallic, oxide, or oxyhydroxide films. Their electrochemical analysis has been complemented with a thorough physicochemical characterization to determine the effect of microstructure, chemical state, bilayer structure, and film thickness on the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The maximum electrocatalytic activity was found for the metallic electrode, where analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) demonstrated that the active catalytic phase at the surface after its electrochemical conditioning is a kind of oxidized nickel oxide/hydroxide layer with the thickness of a few nanometers. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis of these steady-state working electrodes supports that the enhanced performance of the metallic nickel anode vs other chemical states resides in the easier electron transfer through the electrode films and the various interlayers built up during their fabrication and activation. The long-term steady-state operation of the anodes and their efficiency for water splitting was proved in a full-cell AEMWE setup incorporating magnetron-sputtered metallic nickel as the cathode. This work proves that MS is a suitable technique to prepare active, stable, and low-cost electrodes for AEMWE and the capacity of this technique to control the chemical state of the electrocatalytically active layers involved in the OER.


Junio, 2020 | DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.0c00856

Reductant atmospheres during slow pyrolysis of cellulose: First approach to obtaining efficient char -based catalysts in one pot


Santos, JL; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 148 (2020) 104821
Química de Superficies y Catálisis

ABSTRACT

Char based metallic (Pd-Au-Ru-Pt/C) catalysts have drawn increasing research interest due to their versatility in biomass related industrial reactions. Recent studies dealing with the synthesis of char-based catalysts in one single step (one-pot) use reductant atmospheres for biomass pyrolysis. In this work, the influence of the use of a reductant N2/H2 atmosphere on the physicochemical properties of the resulting chars was evaluated in comparison with the use of an inert N2 atmosphere. Specifically, the fundamental parameter of the pyrolysis process, the temperature, was evaluated in the 500−900 °C range. Produced chars were fully characterized by N2 isotherms, ultimate CHNS analysis, X-ray Diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy, helium Temperature Programmed Decomposition and Isoelectric Point analysis. Slow pyrolysis under reductant atmosphere favours deoxygenation reaction against dehydrogenation ones, reduces the carbon yield and results in chars with a more hydrophobic and graphitic character, higher thermal stability and weak surface functionalization. The use of intermediates temperatures (700 °C) favours the obtaining of chars with suitable physicochemical properties and good surface functionalization, which will facilitate the anchoring of the active phase on the surface, improving the metallic dispersion of the resulting one pot catalyst. This leads us to affirm that the use of reducing atmospheres at intermediate temperatures, is superior to the use of inert atmospheres for this purpose. This analysis on the impact of the use of a reductant atmosphere during slow pyrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose opens a new working path for the optimization of char-based catalysts obtained in a single stage.


Junio, 2020 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jaap.2020.104821

New biomorphic filters to face upcoming particulate emissions policies: A review of the FIL-BIO-DIESEL project


Orihuela, MP; Chacartegui, R; Martinez-Fernandez, J
Energy, 201 (2020) 117577
Materiales de Diseño para la Energía y Medioambiente

ABSTRACT

With a high number of diesel vehicles worldwide, particulate emission control is an urgent issue with a global impact, from the health of citizens to commercial future of this technology in some transport segments. Particulate filters are widely used in automotive engines to comply emissions regulations, but current technologies have room for improvement as they add additional backpressure in the exhaust system, and efficient on-board regeneration process is challenging.
The Fil-Bio-Diesel Project is a R&D initiative to improve current particle filtration systems, based on the development of novel biomorphic substrates. By replicating the biologic tissue of a wood precursor, a biomorphic silicon carbide with hierarchic orthotropic microstructure can be produced. The porosity, the pore size, and pore orientation of this bioceramic material can be tailored through the selection of a suitable precursor, widening the initially narrow relationship between filtration efficiency and pressure drop that characterizes granular ceramic materials. In this paper the methodology and main results of the Fil-Bio-Diesel Project are presented. This work shows the peculiar advantages of biomorphic silicon carbide through several experimental studies. The results show the potential of this novel filter substrate to be used in future particulate abatement systems.


Junio, 2020 | DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2020.117577

5-Hydroxymethyl-2-Furfural Oxidation Over Au/Ce(x)Zr(1-x)O(2)Catalysts


Megias-Sayago, C; Bonincontro, D; Lolli, A; Ivanova, S; Albonetti, S; Cavani, F; Odriozola, JA
Frontiers in Chemistry, 8 (2020) 461
Química de Superficies y Catálisis

ABSTRACT

A series of gold catalysts supported on pure CeO2, ZrO2, and two different Ce-Zr mixed oxides have been prepared and tested in the 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural oxidation reaction. All catalysts show high catalytic activity (100% conversion) and important selectivity (27-41%) to the desired product i.e., 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid at low base concentration. Products selectivity changes with the support nature as expected, however, the observed trend cannot be related neither to gold particle size, nor to catalyst reducibility and oxygen mobility. An important relation between the FDCA selectivity and the support textural properties is observed, conducing to the general requirement for optimal pore size for this reaction.


Junio, 2020 | DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2020.00461

Supported Porous Nanostructures Developed by Plasma Processing of Metal Phthalocyanines and Porphyrins


Obrero, JM; Filippin, AN; Alcaire, M; Sanchez-Valencia, JR; Jacob, M; Matei, C; Aparicio, FJ; Macias-Montero, M; Rojas, TC; Espinos, JP; Saghi, Z; Barranco, A; Borras, A
Frontiers in Chemistry, 8 (2020) 520
Nanotecnología en Superficies y Plasma, Tribología y Protección de Superficies

ABSTRACT

The large area scalable fabrication of supported porous metal and metal oxide nanomaterials is acknowledged as one of the greatest challenges for their eventual implementation in on-device applications. In this work, we will present a comprehensive revision and the latest results regarding the pioneering use of commercially available metal phthalocyanines and porphyrins as solid precursors for the plasma-assisted deposition of porous metal and metal oxide films and three-dimensional nanostructures (hierarchical nanowires and nanotubes). The most advanced features of this method relay on its ample general character from the point of view of the porous material composition and microstructure, mild deposition and processing temperature and energy constrictions and, finally, its straightforward compatibility with the direct deposition of the porous nanomaterials on processable substrates and device-architectures. Thus, taking advantage of the variety in the composition of commercially available metal porphyrins and phthalocyanines, we present the development of metal and metal oxides layers including Pt, CuO, Fe2O3, TiO2, and ZnO with morphologies ranging from nanoparticles to nanocolumnar films. In addition, we combine this method with the fabrication by low-pressure vapor transport of single-crystalline organic nanowires for the formation of hierarchical hybrid organic@metal/metal-oxide and @metal/metal-oxide nanotubes. We carry out a thorough characterization of the films and nanowires using SEM, TEM, FIB 3D, and electron tomography. The latest two techniques are revealed as critical for the elucidation of the inner porosity of the layers.


Junio, 2020 | DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2020.00520

Recent progress on the enhancement of photocatalytic properties of BiPO4 using π–conjugated materials


Naciri, Y., Hsini, A., Ajmal, Z., Navio, J.A., Bakiz, B., Albourine, A., Ezahri, M., Benlhachemi, A.
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 280 (2020) 102160
Fotocatálisis Heterogénea: Aplicaciones

ABSTRACT

Semiconductor photocatalysis is regarded as most privileged solution for energy conversion and environmental application. Recently, photocatalysis methods using bismuth-based photocatalysts, such as BiPO4, have been extensively investigated owing to their superior efficacy regarding organic pollutant degradation and their further mineralization into CO2 and H2O. It is well known that BiPO4 monoclinic phase exhibited better photocatalytic performance compared to Degussa (Evonik) P25 TiO2 in term of ultraviolet light driven organic pollutants degradation. However, its wide band gap, poor adsorptive performance and large size make BiPO4 less active under visible light irradiation. However, extensive research works have been conducted in the past with the aim of improving visible light driven BiPO4 activity by constructing a series of heterostructures, mainly coupled with π-conjugated architecture (e.g., conductive polymer, dye sensitization and carbonaceous materials). However, a critical review of modified BiPO4 systems using π-conjugated materials has not been published to date. Therefore, this current review article was designed with the aim of presenting a brief current state-of-the-art towards synthesis methods of BiPO4 in the first section, with an especial focuses onto its crystal-microstructure, optical and photocatalytic properties. Moreover, the most relevant strategies that have been employed to improve its photocatalytic activities are then addressed as the main part of this review. Finally, the last section presents ongoing challenges and perspectives for modified BiPO4 systems using π–conjugated m


Junio, 2020 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cis.2020.102160

Surface Modification of Rutile TiO2 with Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoclusters for Enhanced Oxygen Evolution


Rhatigan, S; Sukola, E; Nolan, M; Colon, G
ACS Applied Nano Materials, 3 (2020) 6017-6033
Materiales de Diseño para la Energía y Medioambiente

ABSTRACT

The oxygen (O-2) evolution reaction (OER) is accepted as the bottleneck in the overall water splitting and has seen intense interest. In this work, we prepared rutile TiO2 modified with nanoclusters of alkaline-earth metal oxides for the OER. Photocatalytic OER was performed over rutile TiO2 surface-modified with alkaline-earth oxide nanoclusters, namely, CaO and MgO. The O-2 evolution activity is notably enhanced for MgO-modified systems at low loadings and a combination of characterization and first-principles simulations allows interpretation of the role of the nanocluster modification in improving the photocatalytic performance of alkaline-earth-modified rutile TiO2. At such low loadings, the nanocluster modifiers would be small, and this facilitates a close correlation with theoretical models. Structural and surface characterizations of the modified systems indicate that the integrity of the rutile phase is maintained after modification. However, charge-carrier separation is strongly affected by the presence of surface nanoclusters. This improved performance is related to surface features such as higher ion dispersion and surface hydroxylation, which are also discussed with first-principles simulations. The modified systems are reducible so that Ti3+ ions will be present. Water dissociation is favorable at cluster and interfacial sites of the stoichiometric and reduced modified surfaces. Pathways to water oxidation at interfacial sites of reduced MgO-modified rutile TiO2 are identified, requiring an overpotential of 0.68 V. In contrast, CaO-modified systems required overpotentials in excess of 0.85 V for the reaction to proceed.


Junio, 2020 | DOI: 10.1021/acsanm.0c01237

Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphene-Like Nanosheets for Use in Ceramic Nanocomposites


Poyato, R; Verdugo, R; Munoz-Ferreiro, C; Gallardo-Lopez, A
Materials, 13 (2020) 11
Reactividad de Sólidos

ABSTRACT

In this work, the synthesis of graphene-like nanosheets (GNS) by an electrochemical exfoliation method, their microstructural characterization and their performance as fillers in a ceramic matrix composite have been assessed. To fabricate the composites, 3 mol % yttria tetragonal zirconia (3YTZP) powders with 1 vol % GNS were processed by planetary ball milling in tert-butanol to enhance the GNS distribution throughout the matrix, and densified by spark plasma sintering (SPS). According to a thorough Raman analysis and SEM observations, the electrochemically exfoliated GNS possessed less than 10 graphene layers and a lateral size lower than 1 mu m. However, they contained amorphous carbon and vacancy-like defects. In contrast the GNS in the sintered composite exhibited enhanced quality with a lower number of defects, and they were wavy, semi-transparent and with very low thickness. The obtained nanocomposite was fully dense with a homogeneous distribution of GNS into the matrix. The Vickers hardness of the nanocomposite showed similar values to those of a monolithic 3YTZP ceramic sintered in the same conditions, and to the reported ones for a 3YTZP composite with the same content of commercial graphene nanosheets.


Junio, 2020 | DOI: 10.3390/ma13112656

Local Rearrangement of the Iodide Defect Structure Determines the Phase Segregation Effect in Mixed-Halide Perovskites


Tiede, DO; Calvo, ME; Galisteo-Lopez, JF; Miguez, H
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 11 (2020) 4911-4916
Materiales Ópticos Multifuncionales

ABSTRACT

Mixed-halide perovskites represent a particularly relevant case within the family of lead-halide perovskites. Beyond their technological relevance for a variety of optoelectronic devices, photoinduced structural changes characteristic of this type of material lead to extreme photophysical changes that are currently the subject of intense debate. Herein we show that the conspicuous photoinduced phase segregation characteristic of these materials is primarily the result of the local and metastable rearrangement of the iodide sublattice. A local photophysical study comprising spectrally resolved laser scanning confocal microscopy is employed to find a correlation between the defect density and the dynamics of photoinduced changes, which extend far from the illuminated region. We observe that iodide-rich regions evolve much faster from highly defective regions. Also, by altering the material composition, we find evidence for the interplay between the iodide-related defect distribution and the intra- and interdomain migration dynamics giving rise to the complexity of this process.


Junio, 2020 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c01127

Thermo-Photocatalytic Methanol Reforming for Hydrogen Production over a CuPd-TiO2 Catalyst


Lopez-Martin, A; Platero, F; Caballero, A; Colon, G
ChemPhotoChem (2020)
Materiales y Procesos Catalíticos de Interés Ambiental y Energético

ABSTRACT

A bimetallic CuPd/TiO2 system has been prepared by a two-step synthesis and was used for a methanol steam photoreforming reaction. By sequential deposition, palladium is deposited over copper nanoclusters through a galvanic replacement process. Hydrogen production by steam reforming from methanol was achieved by both thermo-photocatalytic and photocatalytic processes. It appears that H-2 production on the bimetallic system is notably higher than the Pd monometallic reference. Moreover this difference in the catalytic performance could be related to the higher CO evolution observed for the monometallic Pd-1.0 TiO2 system which is partially inhibited in the bimetallic catalyst. In addition, an important thermal effect can be envisaged in all cases. Nevertheless, this improved effect in the thermo-photocatalytic process is accompanied by a remarkable CO evolution and SMSI effect (important strong metal-support interactions) that hindered the efficiency as temperature increases. On this basis, optimal operational conditions for H-2 production are obtained for thermo-photocatalytic reforming at 100 degrees C, for which the synergetic effect is higher with lower CO production (H-2/CO=4)


Mayo, 2020 | DOI: 10.1002/cptc.202000010

Time-resolved operando DRIFTS-MS study of the moisture tolerance of small-pore SAPO-34 molecular sieves during CH4/CO2 separation


Romero, M; Navarro, JC; Bobadilla, LF; Dominguez, MI; Ivanova, S; Romero-Sarria, F; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 298 (2020) 110071
Química de Superficies y Catálisis

ABSTRACT

This study pretends to evaluate and understand the effect of moisture presence during CO2/CH4 separation on small-pore SAPO-34 molecular sieves. Two SAPO-34 samples with different physicochemical properties (composition, crystal size and texture) were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis using either one or a mixture of two templates. Transient operando DRIFTS-MS measurements revealed that the sample's hydrophobic character is associated to the presence of Si islands, which enhanced sample's moisture tolerance during repetitive adsorption/desorption cycles. This knowledge is fundamental to achieve the rational design of efficient SAPO-34 membranes under realistic conditions.


Mayo, 2020 | DOI: 10.1016/j.micromeso.2020.110071

Structural and surface considerations on Mo/ZSM-5 systems for methane dehydroaromatization reaction


Lopez-Martin, A; Caballero, A; Colon, G
Molecular Catalysis, 486 (2020) 110787
Materiales y Procesos Catalíticos de Interés Ambiental y Energético

ABSTRACT

We have prepared a series of Mo/ZSM-5 systems by impregnation method with different metal loading. The optimum performance has been attained for 4% metal loading, yielding to ca. 2 mmol(benzene)/g(ca)(t) at the end of the reaction. The obtained catalysts were widely structural and surface characterized. As Mo content increases, the surface feature of the support is affected specially its mesoporosity. It has been stated the enormous complexity of Mo species present in the studied system. In situ characterization by XPS reveals different reduction and carburization behaviour depending on the Mo content.


Mayo, 2020 | DOI: 10.1016/j.mcat.2020.110787

Microwave-assisted sol-gel synthesis of TiO2 in the presence of halogenhydric acids. Characterization and photocatalytic activity


Puga,F.;Navío,J.A.;Jaramillo-Páez,C.;Sánchez-Cid,P.;Hidalgo,M.C.
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 394 (2020) 112457
Fotocatálisis Heterogénea: Aplicaciones

ABSTRACT

The synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 nanosheets is reported using Ti(IV) Isopropoxide as Ti(IV) precursor. A sol-gel process combined with microwave activation is used. Three different halogenhydric acids (HX), were used to peptise the sol: HF(ac), HCl (ac) and HBr (ac). The three obtained TiO2-I(HX) samples were characterized by XRD, XRF, N2-adsorption, SEM, TEM, DRS and XPS. The three synthesized samples have high values of specific surfaces (between 100 m2/g and 200 m2/g) and similar band gap values (3.2–3.3 eV). The analysis of the surface composition by XPS confirms the presence of the halogenated species (F, Cl or Br) on the surface of each ones of the samples. The nanometric size (ca 5 nm) of the particles for each of the three samples was confirmed by XRD and by TEM. On the other hand, the nature of the halogenated acid used plays a role in the composition of the phases. While the TiO2-I (HF) sample was 100 % anatase, the other samples turned out to be biphasic, showing anatase/rutile in the TiO2-I(HCl) sample and anatase/brookite in the TiO2-I(HBr) sample. The samples were tested under two illumination conditions (UV and visible light) using rhodamine B and caffeine. The indirect role of the halide agent on the photocatalytic activities thereof is discussed.


Mayo, 2020 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotochem.2020.112457

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