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Fotocatálisis Heterogénea: Aplicaciones

Photocatalytic activity enhancement by noble metal deposition on faceted F-TiO2 synthesised by microwave assisted method. A study of selective oxidation of gas-phase ethanol in a FBPR reactor

Hernández-Laverde, M; Murcia, JJ; Morante, N; Sannino, D; Vaiano, V; Navío, JA; Hidalgo, MC
Catalysis Today, 433 (2024) 114645

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In the present work, fluorinated titanium dioxide (TiO2-F) with high exposition of facet {001} was prepared by following a facile and high yield hydrothermal method assisted by microwave. This faceted TiO2 was then modified by Au or Ag deposition at two different metal loadings (0.125 and 0.25 wt%). A wide physicochemical characterisation of the materials was performed. X-ray difractograms showed high {001} facet exposition in all materials. By X-ray fluorescence it was found that the different samples contained about 5% of fluor. All samples presented high surface area and high uniformity and homogeneity of particles, which highlights the good properties that can be achieved by the microwave synthesis method compared to conventional hydrothermal methods. Oxidation state of the noble metals was studied by XPS. On the other side, TiO2-F and the metallised titania powders were immobilised on polystyrene pellets (PS) for evaluating their gas photocatalytic activity in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) decontamination by following the reaction of photoxidation of ethanol in gas phase. It was found that activity was considerably improved by the addition of noble metals, obtaining high conversion and selectivity to CO2. It is remarkable that the selectivity to CO is almost zero. The highest efficiency was found for the faceted TiO2-F sample with the lowest Au loading (0.125 wt%) immobilised on PS where 91% ethanol conversion and 100% CO2 selectivity were achieved. Different reaction variables were also studied.

Mayo, 2024 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cattod.2024.114645

Materiales Ópticos Multifuncionales

Exciton-carrier coupling in a metal halide perovskite nanocrystal assembly probed by two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy

Rojas-Gatjens, E; Tiede, DO; Koch, KA; Romero-Perez, C; Galisteo-López, JF; Calvo, ME; Míguez, H; Kandada, ARS
Journal of Physics-Materials, 7 (2024) 025002

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The surface chemistry and inter-connectivity within perovskite nanocrystals play a critical role in determining the electronic interactions. They manifest in the Coulomb screening of electron-hole correlations and the carrier relaxation dynamics, among other many-body processes. Here, we characterize the coupling between the exciton and free carrier states close to the band-edge in a ligand-free formamidinium lead bromide nanocrystal assembly via two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy. The optical signatures observed in this work show: (i) a nonlinear spectral lineshape reminiscent of Fano-like interference that evidences the coupling between discrete electronic states and a continuum, (ii) symmetric excited state absorption cross-peaks that suggest the existence of a coupled exciton-carrier excited state, and (iii) ultrafast carrier thermalization and exciton formation. Our results highlight the presence of coherent coupling between exciton and free carriers, particularly in the sub-100 femtosecond timescales.

Abril, 2024 | DOI: 10.1088/2515-7639/ad229a

Química de Superficies y Catálisis

Reforming of biomass-derived producer gas using toluene as model tar: Deactivation and regeneration studies in Ni and K-Ni catalysts

Azancot, L; González-Castaño, M; Bobadilla, LF; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
Environmental Research, 247 (2024) 118210

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Within the syngas production from biomass gasification, tar removal constitutes a chief issue to overcome for advanced catalytic systems. This work investigates the performance of Ni and Ni-K catalysts for reforming of derived-biomass producer gas using toluene as model tar. At 750 degrees C and 60Lg(-1)h(-1), the stability test (70 h) revealed stable performances (CO2, CH4 and C7H8 conversions of 60, 95 and 100%, correspondingly) uniquely for the Ni-K catalyst. Although the efficient protection towards coking let by K was demonstrated, TPO studies over the post-reacted systems still evidenced the presence of carbon deposits for both samples. Conducting three successive reaction/regeneration cycles with different gasifying agents (air, steam and CO2) at 800 C for 1h, the capability towards regeneration of both catalytic systems was assessed and the spent catalysts were characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. While none of the regeneration treatments recovered the performance of the unpromoted catalyst, the Ni-K catalysts demonstrated the capability of being fully regenerated by air and CO2 and exhibited analogous catalytic performances after a series of reaction/regeneration cycles. Hence, it is proved that the addition of K into Ni catalysts not only enhances the resistance against deactivation but enables rather facile regenerative procedures under certain atmospheres (air and CO2).

Abril, 2024 | DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2024.118210

Química de Superficies y Catálisis

A profitability study for catalytic ammonia production from renewable landfill biogas: Charting a route for the next generation of green ammonia

González-Arias, J; Nawaz, MA; Vidal-Barrero, F; Reina, TR
Fuel, 360 (2024) 130584

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This study introduces a novel techno-economic approach to renewable ammonia production using landfill biogas. The proposed process involves bio-hydrogen generation from landfill biogas, nitrogen production via air separation, and the Haber-Bosch process. Building on our prior research, which demonstrated the economic competitiveness of renewable hydrogen production from landfill gas, we extend our investigation to analyze the feasibility of producing renewable ammonia from biogas-derived bio-hydrogen. However, the economic analysis for the baseline scenario reveals the current lack of profitability (net present value of −18.3 M€), with ammonia prices needing to quadruple to achieve profitability. Major costs, including investment, maintenance, overhead expenses, and electricity, collectively account for over 70%, suggesting the potential efficacy of investment subsidies as a political tool. Only cases with subsidies exceeding 50% of total investment costs, under current ammonia market prices, would render the green ammonia route profitable. Our findings underscore the significant techno-economic challenges in realizing renewable ammonia production, emphasizing the need for innovation in process engineering and catalytic technologies to enable competitive and scalable green ammonia production.

Marzo, 2024 | DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2023.130584

Materiales Avanzados

Synthesis and characterization of porous and photocatalytic geopolymers based on natural clay: Enhanced properties and efficient Rhodamine B decomposition

Ettahiri, Y; Bouna, L: Brahim, A; Benlhachemi, A; Bakiz, B; Sánchez-Soto, PJ; Eliche-Quesada, D; Pérez-Villarejo, L
Applied Materials Today, 36 (2024) 102048

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In this work, the incorporation of anatase TiO2 semiconductor in the geopolymer matrix as catalytic materials has been studied. The most noteworthy results obtained from the synthesis of a novel TiO2/geopolymer nanocomposite as an effective ecological catalyst with high thermal stability and significant porosity is presented. The porous and photocatalytic geopolymers based natural clay rich in pyrophyllite and kaolinite minerals were prepared by simple method, the geopolymerization reaction was able to successfully load TiO2 nanoparticles into the geopolymer surface. Furthermore, the results indicate that the prepared catalyst achieved the best performance to degrade Rhodamine B (RhB) molecules present in aqueous solution under UV light irradiation. The geopolymer matrix proved to be a reusable support for TiO2 nanoparticles during the photocatalytic process, efficiently facilitating the separation of photogenerated charges. Finally, the physicochemical and morphological properties of the samples was characterized by several techniques, namely X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (TGA/DTA), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm analysis (BET and BJH methods), UV–Vis Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled to an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analyzer and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

Febrero, 2024 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apmt.2023.102048