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2019


Graphene nanoplatelets for electrically conductive 3YTZP composites densified by pressureless sintering


Lopez-Pernia, C; Gallardo-Lopez, A; Morales-Rodriguez, A; Poyato, R
Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 39 (2015) 4435-4439

ABSTRACT

3 mol% yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (3YTZP) ceramic composites with 2.5, 5 and 10 vol% graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) were pressureless sintered in argon atmosphere between 1350 and 1450 degrees C. The effects of the GNP content and the sintering temperature on the densification, microstructure and electrical properties of the composites were investigated. An isotropic distribution of GNP surrounding ceramic regions was exhibited regardless the GNP content and sintering temperature used. Electrical conductivity values comparable to the ones of fully dense composites prepared by more complex techniques were obtained, even though full densification was not achieved. While the composite with 5 vol% GNP exhibited electrical anisotropy with a semiconductor-type behaviour, the composite with 10 vol% GNP showed an electrically isotropic metallic-type behaviour.


Noviembre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2019.05.067

Colombian metallurgical coke as catalysts support of the direct coal liquefaction


Rico, D; Agamez, Y; Romero, E; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA; Diaz, JD
Fuel, 255 (2019) UNSP 115748

ABSTRACT

A Colombian metallurgical coke was modified in its surface chemistry and was used as support of iron sulfide catalysts for direct coal liquefaction. The modification was made by treatments with diluted oxygen and HNO3 at different conditions. Changes in surface chemistry were studied by determining the point of zero charge (PZC), the isoelectric point (IEP), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), temperature programmed decomposition-mass spectrometry (TPD-MS), Diffuse-reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. The results show that the materials obtained have a wide range of functional groups incorporated in a different proportion and quantity. The textural parameters indicate that treatment with diluted oxygen increases the surface area and incorporates micropores while the samples treated with HNO3 maintain the textural properties of the original material. The catalysts were also characterized by Raman spectroscopy. It was found that impregnation with the iron sulfide precursor does not significantly affect the Raman characteristics of the support. Additionally, XRD analysis shows smaller pyrite crystallites in the coke enriched with oxygenated groups of phenol and lactone indicating better dispersion of the active phase. The amount of oxygen chemisorbed per gram of catalyst shows that both, oxygen and nitric acid treatments, improve the relative dispersion of the active phase. It was found that the presence of the catalysts increases the conversion and yields towards oils and gases with respect to those of the tests without catalysts. Cokes modified by dilute oxygen gaseous treatment contain surface phenol and lactone groups and present the highest yield to oils.


Noviembre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2019.115748

The Calcium-Looping (CaCO3/CaO) process for thermochemical energy storage in Concentrating Solar Power plants


Ortiz, C; Valverde, JM; Chacartegui, R; Perez-Maqueda, LA; Gimenez, P
Renewable & Sustanaible Energy Reviews, 113 (2019) 109252

ABSTRACT

Energy storage based on thermochemical systems is gaining momentum as a potential alternative to molten salts in Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants. This work is a detailed review about the promising integration of a CaCO3/CaO based system, the so-called Calcium-Looping (CaL) process, in CSP plants with tower technology. The CaL process relies on low cost, widely available and non-toxic natural materials (such as limestone or dolomite), which are necessary conditions for the commercial expansion of any energy storage technology at large scale. A comprehensive analysis of the advantages and challenges to be faced for the process to reach a commercial scale is carried out. The review includes a deep overview of reaction mechanisms and process integration schemes proposed in the recent literature. Enhancing the multicycle CaO conversion is a major challenge of the CaL process. Many lab-scale analyses carried out show that residual effective CaO conversion is highly dependent on the process conditions and the CaO precursors used, reaching values in a wide range (0.07–0.82). The selection of the optimal operating conditions must be based on materials performance, process integration, technology and economics aspects. Global plant efficiencies over 45% (without considering solar-side losses) show the interest of the technology. Furthermore, the technological maturity and potential of the process is assessed. The direction towards which future works should be headed is discussed.


Octubre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2019.109252

Highly selective few-ppm NO gas-sensing based on necklace-like nanofibers of ZnO/CdO n-n type I heterojunction


Naderi, H; Hajati, S; Ghaedi, M; Espinos, JP
Sensors and Actuators B-Chemical, 297 (2019) UNSP 126774

ABSTRACT

Electrospinning method followed by calcination is applied to synthesize ZnO/CdO nanofibers. Characterization is performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS), which resulted in detailed analysis of the sensing material. For instance, it was found that the ZnO/CdO is n-n type I heterojunction which possesses straddling energy band gap, which could affect the mechanism of gas sensing. An electroless gold-plated interdigitated electrode with spacing 200 mu m is fabricated on alumina substrate to host the designed nanofibers being used as gas sensor. Gas-sensing activity of the heterojunction is investigated against NO, NO2, H2S, CH4, SO2 and CO in addition to VOCs such as ethanol, acetone, ammonia, methanol, and chloroform with high selectivity and response to NO gas by monitoring resistance changes. Detailed discussion on the mechanism of sensing is presented. The ZnO/CdO nanofibers are found to be highly sensitive to very low concentration range of NO gas (1.2-33 ppm) at optimal operating temperature of 215 degrees C. The influence of humidity (20-96%) on the sensor response was found to be ignorable. Additionally, good repeatability and long-term stability (45 days, every 5 days, SD = 0.7) was obtained for this sensor. Typically, short response times of 47 and 35 s are obtained versus 3 and 33 ppm of NO, respectively, making our sensor promisingly applicable for monitoring this toxic gas in polluting industries, metropolises and maybe in exhaled breath.


Octubre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2019.126774

The influence of mechanical activation process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of bulk Ti2AlN MAX phase obtained by reactive hot pressing


Salvo, C; Chicardi, E; Garcia-Garrido, C; Jimenez, JA; Aguilar, C; Usuba, J; Mangalaraja, RV
Ceramics International, 45 (2019) 17793-17799

ABSTRACT

The effect of mechanical activation process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of bulk nanostructured Ti2AlN compound has been investigated in this work. The mixture of Ti and AlN powders was prepared in a 2:1 molar ratio, and a part of this powder was subjected to a high-energy milling process under argon atmosphere for 10 h using agate as grinding media. Finally, the densification and formation of the ternary Ti2AlN MAX phase through solid state reaction of both unmilled and milled powders were carried out by hot pressing under 15 or 30 MPa at 1200 degrees C for 2 h. The microstructure of precursor powder mixtures and the consolidated samples was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The X-ray diffraction patterns were fitted using the Rietveld refinement for phase quantification and to determine their most important microstructural parameters. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the consolidated samples were correlated with the load used for the hot pressing process. The substantial increase of hardness, the higher densification and the lower grain sizes observed in the samples prepared from the activated powders were attributed to the formation of second phases like Ti5Si3 and Al2O3.


Octubre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2019.05.350

Sintering kinetics, defect chemistry and room-temperature mechanical properties of titanium nitride prepared by spark plasma sintering


Chavez, JMM; Moshtaghioun, BM; Hernandez, FLC; Garcia, DG
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 807 (2019) 151666

ABSTRACT

Fully dense titanium nitride polycrystals have been prepared by spark plasma sintering. The kinetics of the sintering process and the optimized conditions for SPS processing have been put forward. Microstructural analyses of the resulting samples have unambiguously shown the coexistence of titanium as Ti2+, Ti3+ and Ti4+, thus driving the presence of cation vacancies. This fact is a new ingredient which is shown to influence the mechanical properties of this strategic ceramic. 


Octubre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2019.151666

Applications and potentialities of Atomic Force Microscopy in fossil and extant plant cuticle characterization


Benitez, JJ; Guzman-Puyol, S; Dominguez, E; Heredia, A; Heredia-Guerrero, JA
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 268 (2019)125-132

ABSTRACT

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a versatile technique of surface characterization, providing accurate information about the topography and other wide variety of magnitudes at submicron scale. It is extensively utilized in materials science, but its use in other disciplines such as paleobotany is infrequent. In this review, we introduce the main concepts of AFM to paleobotanists, comparing the characteristics of this technique to common electronic and optical microscopies. Then, main works with extant plants, in particular plant cuticles, are described. Finally, realistic applications with fossils are reviewed and their potential use in the characterization of plant fossils discussed. AFM is proposed as a complementary technique to common microscopies to characterize plant cuticle fine details at nanoscale.


Septiembre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.revpalbo.2019.06.015

SiOx by magnetron sputtered revisited: Tailoring the photonic properties of multilayers


Garcia-Valenzuela, A; Alvarez, R; Espinos, JP; Rico, V; Gil-Rostra, J; Palmero, A; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
Applied Surface Science, 488 (2019) 791-800

ABSTRACT

Traditionally porous silicon based photonic structures have been prepared by electrochemically etching of silicon. In this work, porous multilayers of nanocolumnar SiOx and SiO2 thin films acting as near infrared (NIR) 1D-photonic nanostructures are prepared by magnetron sputtering deposition at oblique angles (MS-OA). Simultaneous control of porosity and stoichiometry of the stacked films is achieved by adjusting the deposition angle and oxygen partial pressure according to a parametric formula. This new methodologoy is proved for the synthesis of SiOx thin films with x close to 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and nanostructures varying from compact (at 0 degrees deposition angle) to highly porous and nanocolumnar (at 70 degrees and 85 degrees deposition angles). The strict control of composition, structure and nanostructure provided by this technique permits a fine tuning of the absorption edge and refraction index at 1500 nm of the porous films and their manufacturing in the form of SiOx-SiO2 porous multilayers acting as near infrared (NIR) 1D-photonic structures with well-defined optofluidic responses. Liquid tunable NIR Bragg mirrors and Bragg microcavities for liquid sensing applications are presented as proof of concept of the possibilities of this MS-OA manufacturing method as an alternative to the conventional electrochemical fabrication of silicon based photonic structures.


Septiembre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.05.273

Extraordinary visible photocatalytic activity of a Co0.2Zn0.8O system studied in the Remazol BB oxidation


KarimTanji; J.A.Navio; Jamal Naja; M.C.Hidalgo; Abdellah Chaqroune; C.Jaramillo-Páez; Abdelhak Kherbeche
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 382 (2019) 111877

ABSTRACT

Nanoparticles of CoxZn1-xO system with a nominal composition of x=0.2 were synthesized by the Solution Combustion Method (SCM). Structural and morphological studies as well as the chemical composition of the material were widely investigated by different techniques. Photocatalytic activity under UV and Visible illumination was studied by means of the Remazol Brilliant Blue dye (RBB) oxidation reaction. The effect of different experimental parameters, such as the initial dye concentration, photocatalyst mass, pH or hydrogen peroxide concentration on the RBB discoloration under UV irradiation was studied. Optimal experimental conditions were found to be a photocatalyst mass of 1 g.L-1, dye concentration of 20 mg.L-1 and solution pH of 11. Hydrogen peroxide addition was found to have no effect in the photocatalytic behavior of the material in the range of concentration studied (0 to 6•10-4 M). The optimal parameters were chosen to investigate the degradation of RBB under UV-illumination and just visible illumination. It was observed that the UV-photocatalytic property of pristine ZnO for the RBB removal was scarcely improved after cobalt-incorporation, whereas the effect of cobalt incorporation into ZnO greatly enhanced the RBB conversion under visible illumination. Even more interesting is that, under same experimental conditions, the visible efficiency of the Co-ZnO system is the same that the one showed under UV illumination, i.e. the system does not loose efficiency when illuminated only with visible light.


Septiembre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotochem.2019.111877

Mechanically induced combustion synthesis and thermoelectric properties of nanostructured strontium hexaboride (SrB6)


Jalaly, M; Khosroshahi, BK; Gotor, FJ; Sayagues, MJ; Yamini, SA; Failamani, F; Mori, T
Ceramics International, 45 (2019) 14426-14431

ABSTRACT

The nanoparticles of strontium hexaboride (SrB6) were synthesized by a mechanically induced magnesiothermic combustion in the Mg/B2O3/SrO system. Ignition time in this system was recorded to be 23 min of milling. X-ray diffraction(XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques were used to characterize the combustion product. Thermal analysis was employed to assess the formation mechanism. It was revealed that Mg initially reduced B2O3 in a combustive manner to generate elemental boron and a large amount of heat, resulting in the reduction of SrO by Mg at high temperature. The in-situ formed elemental Sr and B react immediately to generate SrB6. Thermoelectric properties of consolidated SrB6, including thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and figure-of-merit were evaluated at the temperature range of 300–873 K.


Agosto, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2019.04.163

Luminescence and X-ray Absorption Properties of Uniform Eu3+:(H3O)Lu3F10 Nanoprobes


Gonzalez-Mancebo, D; Becerro, AI; Corral, A; Balcerzyk, M; Ocana, M
Nanomaterials, 9 (2019) 1153

ABSTRACT

Due to the high atomic number of lutetium and the low phonon energy of the fluoride matrix, Lu-based fluoride nanoparticles doped with active lanthanide ions are potential candidates as bioprobes in both X-ray computed tomography and luminescent imaging. This paper shows a method for the fabrication of uniform, water-dispersible Eu3+:(H3O)Lu3F10 nanoparticles doped with different Eu contents. Their luminescent properties were studied by means of excitation and emission spectra as well as decay curves. The X-ray attenuation capacity of the phosphor showing the highest emission intensity was subsequently analyzed and compared with a commercial contrast agent. The results indicated that the 10% Eu3+-doped (H3O)Lu3F10 nanoparticles fabricated with the proposed polyol-based method are good candidates to be used as dual probes for luminescent imaging and X-ray computed tomography.


Agosto, 2019 | DOI: 10.3390/nano9081153

Natural abundance O-17 MAS NMR and DFT simulations: New insights into the atomic structure of designed micas


Pavon, E; Osuna, FJ; Alba, MD; Delevoye, L
Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, 100 (2019) 45-51

ABSTRACT

Combining O-17 Magic-Angle Spinning (MAS) NMR at natural abundance with DFT calculations is a promising methodology to shed light on the structure and disorder in tetrahedral sheets of designed micas with enhanced properties. Among brittle micas, synthetic mica is an important alternative to natural ones with a swelling sheet-like structure that results in many applications, by exploiting unique characteristics. Lowenstein's rule is one of the main chemical factor that determines the atomic structure of aluminosilicates and furthermore their properties. In the present article, O-17 MAS NMR spectroscopy is used to validate (or not) the agreement of the Lowenstein's rule with the distribution of Si and Al sites in the tetrahedral sheets of synthetic micas. O-17 MAS spectra of synthetic high-charged micas exhibit two regions of signals that revealed two distinguishable oxygen environments, namely Si-O-X (with X = Si, Al-tet , Mg) and Al-tet -O-Y (Y=Mg or Al-tet). DFT calculations were also conducted to obtain the O-17 chemical shift and other NMR features like the quadrupolar coupling constant, C-Q, for all of the oxygen environments encountered in the two model structures, one respecting the Lowenstein's rule and the other involving Al-tet -O-Al-tet and Si-O-Si environments. Our DFT calculations support the O-17 assignment, by confirming that Al-tet -O-3Mg and Al tet -O-Al tet oxygen environments show chemical shifts under 30 ppm and more important, with quadrupolar coupling constants of about 1 MHz, in line with the spectral observation. By quantifying the O-17 MAS NMR spectra at natural abundance, we demonstrate that one of the synthetic mica compositions does not meet the Lowenstein's rule.


Agosto, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.ssnmr.2019.03.006

Noble Metal Supported on Activated Carbon for "Hydrogen Free" HDO Reactions: Exploring Economically Advantageous Routes for Biomass Valorisation


Jin, W; Santos, JL; Pastor-Perez, L; Gu, S; Centeno, MA; Reina, TR
Chemcatchem (2019)

ABSTRACT

An innovative route for bio‐compounds upgrading via “hydrogen‐free” hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is proposed and evaluated using guaiacol as a model compound in a high‐pressure batch reactor. Experimental results showed that noble metal supported on activated carbon catalysts are able to conduct tandem multiple steps including water splitting and subsequent HDO. The activity of Ru/C catalyst is superior to other studied catalysts (i. e. Au/C, Pd/C and Rh/C) in our water‐only HDO reaction system. The greater dispersion and smaller metal particle size confirmed by the TEM micrographs accounts for the better performance of Ru/C. This material also presents excellent levels of stability as demonstrated in multiple recyclability runs. Overall, the proposed novel approach confirmed the viability of oxygenated bio‐compounds upgrading in a water‐only reaction system suppressing the need of external H2 supply and can be rendered as a fundamental finding for the economical biomass valorisation to produce added value bio‐fuels.


Agosto, 2019 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201900841

Structural and compositional analysis of Co-based coatings after catalytic tests for the sodium borohydride hydrolysis


Beltran, AM
Materials Research Express, 6 (2019) art. 085511

ABSTRACT

The use of Co-based catalysts for the sodium borohydride hydrolysis for hydrogen production is a well-known process as a source of clean energy, although its mechanisms are still under discussion. With the aim of acquiring a deeper knowledge about this catalytic process, three different catalysts (Co, CoC and CoB) were deposited as a thin film layer by magnetron sputtering onto a polymeric membrane, used as a substrate and analyzed by advance transmission and scanning-transmission electron microscopy techniques (STEM). Structural and compositional characterizations, by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), have been performed on the coatings before and after their use as catalysts on the sodium borohydride reaction for 90 min, to check the production of hydrogen. Results have shown the formation of CoxB nanoflakes and other Co-based compounds over the catalysts and related to their catalytic activity. Knowing the changes in the structure and composition of the catalysts is key to understanding their catalytic behavior, activity and durability. Among the analyzed catalysts, the Co-C presents better activity during the first cycles, which is related to a larger formation of CoxB.


Agosto, 2019 | DOI: 10.1088/2053-1591/ab1e27

Processing and properties of Bi0.98R0.02FeO3 (R = La, Sm, Y) ceramics flash sintered at similar to 650 degrees C in <5 s


Gil-Gonzalez, E; Perejon, A; Sanchez-Jimenez, PE; Raj, R; Perez-Maqueda, LA
Journal of the American Ceramic Society, (2019)

ABSTRACT

We show that flash sintering produces single‐phase, nanograin‐sized polycrystals of isovalent‐substituted multiferroic ceramics of complex compositions. Single‐phase polycrystals of Bi0.98R0.02FeO3 (R = La, Sm, Y) were produced at a furnace temperature of ~650°C in a few seconds by the application of an electric field of 50 V cm−1, with the current limit set to 40 mA mm−2. The dielectric and insulating properties compared favorably with expected values. Impedance spectroscopy suggests electrically homogenous microstructure, except for the sample Bi0.98La0.02FeO3 that shows a small grain boundary contribution to the impedance. These results reinforce the enabling nature of flash sintering for ceramics which pose difficulties in conventional sintering because they contain low melting constituents or develop secondary phases during the sintering protocol.


Agosto, 2019 | DOI: 10.1111/jace.16718

Support effects on NiO-based catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethane


Delgado, D; Sanchis, R; Cecilia, JA; Rodriguez-Castellon, E; Caballero, A; Solsona, B; Nieto, JML
Catalysis Today, 333 (2019) 10-16

ABSTRACT

We report on the effect of NiO-support interactions on the chemical nature of Ni species in a series of supported NiO catalysts for the ODH of ethane. SiO2, TiO2-anatase, a high surface area TiO2 and a porous clay hetero-structure (PCH) with TiO2 and SiO2 pillars were used as supports, which led to a selectivity to ethylene in the range 30-90% over supported NiO catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, N-2-Adsorption, H-2-TPR, XPS and in situ (under H-2 reductive atmosphere) and ex situ XAS spectroscopy. The catalytic performance of supported materials is discussed in terms of their reducibility and specific reduction kinetics, but also taking into account the specific chemical nature of Ni species on each catalyst. The influence of the particle size and the presence of Ni and O vacancies on the catalytic performance in the ODH of ethane is inferred.


Agosto, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cattod.2018.07.010

Au/Al2O3 - Efficient catalyst for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural oxidation to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid


Megias-Sayago, C; Lolli, A; Ivanova, S; Albonetti, S; Cavani, F; Odriozola, JA
Catalysis Today, 333 (2019) 169-175

ABSTRACT

The catalytic activity of a simple Au/Al2O3 catalytic system prepared by the direct anionic exchange (DAE) method was evaluated in the selective 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) oxidation under mild conditions, using molecular oxygen as the oxidant. The influence of the HMF/NaOH ratio and reaction time on product yield and distribution were studied and discussed in detail. Extremely high activity and selectivity were observed in mild conditions, with 99% of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) production at full HMF conversion after 4 h with the use of only 4 equivalents of NaOH at 70 degrees C. Catalyst viability and stability were verified by repeating the cycle up to five times. Changes in the nature of the support were also contemplated by introducing some ceria fraction, i.e. 20 wt%.


Agosto, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cattod.2018.04.024

On‐Surface Synthesis and Characterization of Acene‐Based Nanoribbons Incorporating Four‐Membered Rings


Sanchez-Sanchez, C; Dienel, T; Nicolai, A; Kharche, N; Liang, LB; Daniels, C; Meunier, V; Liu, JZ; Feng, XL; Mullen, K; Sanchez-Valencia, JR; Groning, O; Ruffieux, P; Fasel, R
Chemistry-A European Journal

ABSTRACT

A bottom up method for the synthesis of unique tetracene-based nanoribbons, which incorporate cyclobutadiene moieties as linkers between the acene segments, is reported. These structures were achieved through the formal [2+2] cycloaddition reaction of ortho-functionalized tetracene precursor monomers. The formation mechanism and the electronic and magnetic properties of these nanoribbons were comprehensively studied by means of a multitechnique approach. Ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy showed the occurrence of metal-coordinated nanostructures at room temperature and their evolution into nanoribbons through formal [2+2] cycloaddition at 475 K. Frequency-shift non-contact atomic force microscopy images clearly proved the presence of bridging cyclobutadiene moieties upon covalent coupling of activated tetracene molecules. Insight into the electronic and vibrational properties of the so-formed ribbons was obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and theoretical calculations. Magnetic properties were addressed from a computational point of view, allowing us to propose promising candidates to magnetic acene-based ribbons incorporating four-membered rings. The reported findings will increase the understanding and availability of new graphene-based nanoribbons with high potential in future spintronics.


Julio, 2019 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201901410

Size-tailored Ru nanoparticles deposited over gamma-Al2O3 for the CO2 methanation reaction


Navarro-Jaen, S; Navarro, JC; Bobadilla, LF; Centeno, MA; Laguna, OH; Odriozola, JA
Applied Surface Science, 483 (2019) 750-761

ABSTRACT

By means of the polyol method, a series of 5 wt% Ru/Al2O3 catalysts was synthesized controlling the particle size of the ruthenium species. The physico-chemical characterization demonstrated the successful particle size control of the Ru species, in such a way that higher the Ru/PVP ratio, higher the Ru particle size. Moreover, there are evidences that suggest preferential growth of the RuO2 clusters depending on the Ru/PVP ratio. Regarding the catalytic activity during the CO2 methanation, the total conversion and the CH4 yield increased with the particle size of Ru. Nevertheless, a considerable enhancement of the catalytic performance of the most active system was evidenced at 4 bar, demonstrating the improvement of the thermodynamics (superior total conversion) and kinetics (superior reaction rate) of the CO2 methanation at pressures above the atmospheric one. Finally, the in situ DRIFTS study allowed to establish that CO2 was dissociated to CO* and O* species on the metallic Ru particles, followed by the consecutive hydrogenation of CO* towards CHO*, CH2O*, CH3O*, and finally CH4 molecules, which were further desorbed from the catalyst. Thus from the mechanistic point of view, a suitable particle size of the Ru nanoparticles along with the high-pressure effects results in the enhancement of the availability of hydrogen and consequently in the formation of CHxO species that enhance the cleavage of the C-O bond, which is the rate-determining step of the overall CO2 methanation process.


Julio, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.03.248

Influence of the preparation method in the metal-support interaction and reducibility of Ni-Mg-Al based catalysts for methane steam reforming


Azancot, L; Bobadilla, LF; Santos, JL; Cordoba, JM; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44 (2019) 19827-19840

ABSTRACT

Ni-Mg-Al based catalysts were prepared using different preparation methods (impregnation, impregnation-coprecipitation and coprecipitation) and tested in steam reforming of methane. The differences observed in catalytic activity were directly correlated to the physicochemical properties and the different degree of Ni-Mg-Al interaction. The reducibility results showed that the catalyst prepared by the impregnation-coprecipitation method presented the most optimal metal-support interaction to reduce the NiO preserving the Ni-0 particles highly dispersed on the support surface. These results demonstrate that the structure and catalytic performance of Ni-Mg-Al based catalysts can be tuned by controlling the metal-support interaction through of the preparation method.


Julio, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.05.167

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