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2019


Silver effect on the tribological and antibacterial properties of a-C:Ag coatings


Dominguez-Meister, S; Rojas, TC; Frias, JE; Sanchez-Lopez, JC
Tribology International, 140 (2019) UNSP 105837

ABSTRACT

a-C:Ag coatings (1.2-23.4 at.% of Ag) were deposited using magnetron sputtering. Ag nanoparticles appear embedded in the carbon matrix or segregated to the column boundaries or surface. The silver doping has not promoted significant changes of the sp(2)/sp(3) ratio although a decrease of the hardness is observed (from 17 to 7 GPa). The tribological behavior did not show a clear dependence on the silver concentration in unlubricated or lubricated conditions (fetal bovinum serum) against alumina or UHMWPE balls. Ag nanoparticle dispersion enhanced the bactericide behavior as determined by the released Ag+ ion in the fluid media. There is no clear effect of friction rubbing on the released silver indicating that diffusion and top segregation are prevalent mechanisms for its dissolution.


Diciembre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.triboint.2019.06.030

Phyllite clays as raw materials replacing cement in mortars: Properties of new impermeabilizing mortars


Arce, Carolina; Garzon, Eduardo; Sanchez-Soto, Pedro J.
Construction and Building Materials, 224 (2019) 348-358

ABSTRACT

The aim of this investigation was to determine the suitability of phyllite clays as a raw construction material. For that purpose, the cement in mortars was replaced by a phyllite clay (0–90 wt%) making this study the first of its kind to be performed. These materials were prepared with different water proportions according to the water content and water/cement and water/binder (cement plus phyllite clay) relationships. A comparative study of the most important properties of the resulting experimental mortars was carried out, such as apparent density, water retentivity, consistency and mechanical strength (flexural and compressive strength), along with an evaluation of the pozzolanic activity and permeability. The results showed that the increase of phyllite decreases the apparent density, the consistency and mechanical properties of the mortar, while water retentivity fluctuates. Good correlations (R2 > 0.84) were obtained between flexural and compressive strength for the mortars after 28 days of curing. Pozzolanic activity was observed at cement replacement of 80 wt% of phyllite. Moreover, new impermeabilizing mortars constituted by phyllite clay and cement have been obtained according to the low coefficients of permeability. Taking into account the findings of this research, phyllite clays can be applied as raw construction materials with savings derived from replacing cement in mortars and the low energy consumption involved in their production. However, the present study concluded that the use of phyllite clays did not improve the mechanical strength of these new mortars but, in contrast, they can be applied for impermeabilization purposes in Construction and Civil Engineering.


Noviembre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.07.081

Graphene nanoplatelets for electrically conductive 3YTZP composites densified by pressureless sintering


Lopez-Pernia, C; Gallardo-Lopez, A; Morales-Rodriguez, A; Poyato, R
Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 39 (2015) 4435-4439

ABSTRACT

3 mol% yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (3YTZP) ceramic composites with 2.5, 5 and 10 vol% graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) were pressureless sintered in argon atmosphere between 1350 and 1450 degrees C. The effects of the GNP content and the sintering temperature on the densification, microstructure and electrical properties of the composites were investigated. An isotropic distribution of GNP surrounding ceramic regions was exhibited regardless the GNP content and sintering temperature used. Electrical conductivity values comparable to the ones of fully dense composites prepared by more complex techniques were obtained, even though full densification was not achieved. While the composite with 5 vol% GNP exhibited electrical anisotropy with a semiconductor-type behaviour, the composite with 10 vol% GNP showed an electrically isotropic metallic-type behaviour.


Noviembre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2019.05.067

Colombian metallurgical coke as catalysts support of the direct coal liquefaction


Rico, D; Agamez, Y; Romero, E; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA; Diaz, JD
Fuel, 255 (2019) 115748

ABSTRACT

A Colombian metallurgical coke was modified in its surface chemistry and was used as support of iron sulfide catalysts for direct coal liquefaction. The modification was made by treatments with diluted oxygen and HNO3 at different conditions. Changes in surface chemistry were studied by determining the point of zero charge (PZC), the isoelectric point (IEP), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), temperature programmed decomposition-mass spectrometry (TPD-MS), Diffuse-reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. The results show that the materials obtained have a wide range of functional groups incorporated in a different proportion and quantity. The textural parameters indicate that treatment with diluted oxygen increases the surface area and incorporates micropores while the samples treated with HNO3 maintain the textural properties of the original material. The catalysts were also characterized by Raman spectroscopy. It was found that impregnation with the iron sulfide precursor does not significantly affect the Raman characteristics of the support. Additionally, XRD analysis shows smaller pyrite crystallites in the coke enriched with oxygenated groups of phenol and lactone indicating better dispersion of the active phase. The amount of oxygen chemisorbed per gram of catalyst shows that both, oxygen and nitric acid treatments, improve the relative dispersion of the active phase. It was found that the presence of the catalysts increases the conversion and yields towards oils and gases with respect to those of the tests without catalysts. Cokes modified by dilute oxygen gaseous treatment contain surface phenol and lactone groups and present the highest yield to oils.


Noviembre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2019.115748

The influence of mechanical activation process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of bulk Ti2AlN MAX phase obtained by reactive hot pressing


Salvo, C; Chicardi, E; Garcia-Garrido, C; Jimenez, JA; Aguilar, C; Usuba, J; Mangalaraja, RV
Ceramics International, 45 (2019) 17793-17799

ABSTRACT

The effect of mechanical activation process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of bulk nanostructured Ti2AlN compound has been investigated in this work. The mixture of Ti and AlN powders was prepared in a 2:1 molar ratio, and a part of this powder was subjected to a high-energy milling process under argon atmosphere for 10 h using agate as grinding media. Finally, the densification and formation of the ternary Ti2AlN MAX phase through solid state reaction of both unmilled and milled powders were carried out by hot pressing under 15 or 30 MPa at 1200 degrees C for 2 h. The microstructure of precursor powder mixtures and the consolidated samples was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The X-ray diffraction patterns were fitted using the Rietveld refinement for phase quantification and to determine their most important microstructural parameters. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the consolidated samples were correlated with the load used for the hot pressing process. The substantial increase of hardness, the higher densification and the lower grain sizes observed in the samples prepared from the activated powders were attributed to the formation of second phases like Ti5Si3 and Al2O3.


Octubre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2019.05.350

Sintering kinetics, defect chemistry and room-temperature mechanical properties of titanium nitride prepared by spark plasma sintering


Chavez, JMM; Moshtaghioun, BM; Hernandez, FLC; Garcia, DG
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 807 (2019) 151666

ABSTRACT

Fully dense titanium nitride polycrystals have been prepared by spark plasma sintering. The kinetics of the sintering process and the optimized conditions for SPS processing have been put forward. Microstructural analyses of the resulting samples have unambiguously shown the coexistence of titanium as Ti2+, Ti3+ and Ti4+, thus driving the presence of cation vacancies. This fact is a new ingredient which is shown to influence the mechanical properties of this strategic ceramic. 


Octubre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2019.151666

The Calcium-Looping (CaCO3/CaO) process for thermochemical energy storage in Concentrating Solar Power plants


Ortiz, C; Valverde, JM; Chacartegui, R; Perez-Maqueda, LA; Gimenez, P
Renewable & Sustanaible Energy Reviews, 113 (2019) 109252

ABSTRACT

Energy storage based on thermochemical systems is gaining momentum as a potential alternative to molten salts in Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants. This work is a detailed review about the promising integration of a CaCO3/CaO based system, the so-called Calcium-Looping (CaL) process, in CSP plants with tower technology. The CaL process relies on low cost, widely available and non-toxic natural materials (such as limestone or dolomite), which are necessary conditions for the commercial expansion of any energy storage technology at large scale. A comprehensive analysis of the advantages and challenges to be faced for the process to reach a commercial scale is carried out. The review includes a deep overview of reaction mechanisms and process integration schemes proposed in the recent literature. Enhancing the multicycle CaO conversion is a major challenge of the CaL process. Many lab-scale analyses carried out show that residual effective CaO conversion is highly dependent on the process conditions and the CaO precursors used, reaching values in a wide range (0.07–0.82). The selection of the optimal operating conditions must be based on materials performance, process integration, technology and economics aspects. Global plant efficiencies over 45% (without considering solar-side losses) show the interest of the technology. Furthermore, the technological maturity and potential of the process is assessed. The direction towards which future works should be headed is discussed.


Octubre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2019.109252

Highly selective few-ppm NO gas-sensing based on necklace-like nanofibers of ZnO/CdO n-n type I heterojunction


Naderi, H; Hajati, S; Ghaedi, M; Espinos, JP
Sensors and Actuators B-Chemical, 297 (2019) 126774

ABSTRACT

Electrospinning method followed by calcination is applied to synthesize ZnO/CdO nanofibers. Characterization is performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS), which resulted in detailed analysis of the sensing material. For instance, it was found that the ZnO/CdO is n-n type I heterojunction which possesses straddling energy band gap, which could affect the mechanism of gas sensing. An electroless gold-plated interdigitated electrode with spacing 200 mu m is fabricated on alumina substrate to host the designed nanofibers being used as gas sensor. Gas-sensing activity of the heterojunction is investigated against NO, NO2, H2S, CH4, SO2 and CO in addition to VOCs such as ethanol, acetone, ammonia, methanol, and chloroform with high selectivity and response to NO gas by monitoring resistance changes. Detailed discussion on the mechanism of sensing is presented. The ZnO/CdO nanofibers are found to be highly sensitive to very low concentration range of NO gas (1.2-33 ppm) at optimal operating temperature of 215 degrees C. The influence of humidity (20-96%) on the sensor response was found to be ignorable. Additionally, good repeatability and long-term stability (45 days, every 5 days, SD = 0.7) was obtained for this sensor. Typically, short response times of 47 and 35 s are obtained versus 3 and 33 ppm of NO, respectively, making our sensor promisingly applicable for monitoring this toxic gas in polluting industries, metropolises and maybe in exhaled breath.


Octubre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2019.126774

From structure to luminescence investigation of oxyfluoride transparent glasses and glass-ceramics doped with Eu3+/Dy3+ ions


Walas, M; Lisowska, M; Lewandowski, T; Becerro, AI; Lapinski, M; Synak, A; Sadowski, W; Koscielska, B
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 896 (2019) 1410-1418

ABSTRACT

Glasses and glass-ceramics with nominal composition 73 TeO2- 4BaO-3Bi(2)O(3)-18SrF(2)-2RE(2)O(3) (where RE = Eu, Dy) have been synthesized by conventional melt-quenching technique and subsequent heat treatment at 370 degrees C for 24 h in air atmosphere. Various Eu3+ to Dy3+ molar ratio have been applied to investigate luminescence properties in both glass and glass-ceramic matrices. Especially, white light emission through simultaneous excitation of Eu3+ and Dy3+ has been studied in detail. Influence of crystalline SrF2 phase on luminescence kinetics has been determined by luminescence decay time measurements. Presence of crystalline SrF2 phase has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction technique XRD and transmission electron microscopy TEM. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR have been applied to get further insight into structural properties of glass and glass-ceramic materials. Color tunable white light emission has been obtained using UV excitation. Influence of the SrF2 crystallization on luminescence properties of prepared materials have been described in detail. Moreover, luminescence properties and especially emission color dependence on the Eu3+ to Dy3+ molar ratio have been exhaustively studied. Color-tunable white light emission has been observed as a result of simultaneous radiative transition of both, Eu3+ and Dy3+ ions when applying UV excitation. Judd - Ofelt and other optical parameters have been calculated based on luminescence emission spectra. Achieved results confirm that tellurite glass-ceramics containing SrF2 nanocrystals are good hosts for RE3+ ions and they can be considered as new phosphors for white light emitting diodes WLEDs.


Octubre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2019.07.017

Sodium ion storage performance of magnetron sputtered WO3 thin films


Garcia-Garcia, FJ; Mosa, J; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Aparicio, M
Electrochimica Acta, 321 (2019) 134669

ABSTRACT

WO3 thin film electrodes were successfully prepared by magnetron sputtering (MS) deposition under an oblique angle configuration (OAD). Intercalation of Na ions in the tungsten oxide layers has been studied using electrochemical techniques. Sample characterization before and after sodium intercalation has been carried out by Raman, XPS and XRD measurements. ToF-SIMS analysis has been also performed in order to analyze the element depth profiles along the electrode thickness. Electron microscopy evaluation of the cross section confirms the porous structure of the coatings. Batteries integrating these WO3 electrodes have a discharge capacity of 120 mA h g(-1) at the initial cycles and show an adequate capacity retention upon 300 cycles. The WO3-OAD thin-films are proposed as promising electrodes for Na-ion batteries.


Octubre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2019.134669

Synthesis, functionalization and properties of uniform europium-doped sodium lanthanum tungstate and molybdate (NaLa(XO4)(2), X = Mo,W) probes for luminescent and X-ray computed tomography bioimaging


Laguna, M; Nunez, NO; Becerro, AI; Lozano, G; Moros, M; de la Fuente, JM; Corral, A; Balcerzyk, M; Ocana, M
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 554 (2019) 520-530

ABSTRACT

A one-pot simple procedure for the synthesis of uniform, ellipsoidal Eu3+-doped sodium lanthanum tungstate and molybdate (NaLa(XO4)(2), X = W, Mo) nanophosphors, functionalized with carboxylate groups, is described. The method is based on a homogeneous precipitation process at 120 degrees C from appropriate Na+ Ln(3+) and tungstate or molybdate precursors dissolved in ethylene glycol/water mixtures containing poly acrylic acid. A comparative study of the luminescent properties of both luminescent materials as a function of the Eu3+ doping level has been performed to find the optimum nanophosphor, whose efficiency as X-ray computed tomography contrast agent is also evaluated and compared with that of a commercial probe. Finally, the cell viability and colloidal stability in physiological pH medium of the optimum samples have also been studied to assess their suitability for biomedical applications.


Octubre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2019.07.031

New waste-based clinkers for the preparation of low-energy cements. A step forward toward circular economy


Martinez-Martinez, S; Perez-Villarejo, L; Eliche-Quesada, D; Sanchez-Soto, PJ; Christogerou, A; Kanellopoulou, DG; Angelopoulos, GN
International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology, (2019)

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the use of industrial wastes arising from different production processes of the ceramic and marble industries as raw materials for the design and formulation of new cement clinkers with a high content of dicalcium silicate (Belite). The aim was to reintroduce these wastes in the industrial sector and take advantage of them for a greater environmental benefit, as indicated by the principles of the circular economy. Formulations containing 2.5, 5 and 10 wt% of chamotte and marble sludge, respectively, and a waste-free formulation have been designed to obtain clinkers with a content of dicalcium silicate higher than 60 wt%. The different blends have been studied up to a maximum temperature of 1390 degrees C by Thermal Analysis. Other techniques such as XRD, XRF, Modified Bogue Equation, Quality Indexes (LSF, AM, SM) and Optical Microscopy have been used for the study and characterization of industrial wastes, the raw materials and the high belite-type cement dosages. The results indicate that this type of cements can be designed using different types of wastes and in this way reduce the environmental impacts caused by the extraction of raw materials and the deposition of the wastes in landfills, improving the circular economy of the construction industry.


Septiembre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1111/ijac.13390

Correlation of Structure and Performance of Hard Carbons as Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries


Gomez-Martin, A; Martinez-Fernandez, J; Ruttert, M; Winter, M; Placke, T; Ramirez-Rico, J
Chemistry of Materials, 31 (2019) 7288-7299

ABSTRACT

Hard carbons are the material of choice as negative electrode in sodium ion batteries. Despite being extensively studied, there is still debate regarding the mechanisms responsible for storage in low- and high-potential regions. This work presents a comprehensive approach to elucidate the involved storage mechanisms when Na ions insert into such disordered structures. Synchrotron X-ray total scattering experiments were performed to access quantitative information on atomic ordering in these materials at the nanoscale. Results prove that hard carbons undergo an atomic rearrangement as the graphene layers cross-link at intermediate temperatures (1200-1600 degrees C), resulting in an increase of the average interplanar distance up to 1400 degrees C, followed by a progressive decrease. This increase correlates with the positive trend in the reversible capacity of biomass-derived carbons when processed up to 1200-1600 degrees C due to an increased capacity at low potential (<= 0.1 V vs Na/Na+). A decrease in achievable sloping capacity with increasing heat-treatment temperature arises from larger crystalline domains and a lower concentration of defects. The observed correlation between structural parameters and electrochemical properties clearly supports that the main storage of Na ions into a hard-carbon structure is based on an adsorption-intercalation mechanism.


Septiembre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.9b01768

Applications and potentialities of Atomic Force Microscopy in fossil and extant plant cuticle characterization


Benitez, JJ; Guzman-Puyol, S; Dominguez, E; Heredia, A; Heredia-Guerrero, JA
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 268 (2019) 125-132

ABSTRACT

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a versatile technique of surface characterization, providing accurate information about the topography and other wide variety of magnitudes at submicron scale. It is extensively utilized in materials science, but its use in other disciplines such as paleobotany is infrequent. In this review, we introduce the main concepts of AFM to paleobotanists, comparing the characteristics of this technique to common electronic and optical microscopies. Then, main works with extant plants, in particular plant cuticles, are described. Finally, realistic applications with fossils are reviewed and their potential use in the characterization of plant fossils discussed. AFM is proposed as a complementary technique to common microscopies to characterize plant cuticle fine details at nanoscale.


Septiembre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.revpalbo.2019.06.015

SiOx by magnetron sputtered revisited: Tailoring the photonic properties of multilayers


Garcia-Valenzuela, A; Alvarez, R; Espinos, JP; Rico, V; Gil-Rostra, J; Palmero, A; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
Applied Surface Science, 488 (2019) 791-800

ABSTRACT

Traditionally porous silicon based photonic structures have been prepared by electrochemically etching of silicon. In this work, porous multilayers of nanocolumnar SiOx and SiO2 thin films acting as near infrared (NIR) 1D-photonic nanostructures are prepared by magnetron sputtering deposition at oblique angles (MS-OA). Simultaneous control of porosity and stoichiometry of the stacked films is achieved by adjusting the deposition angle and oxygen partial pressure according to a parametric formula. This new methodologoy is proved for the synthesis of SiOx thin films with x close to 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and nanostructures varying from compact (at 0 degrees deposition angle) to highly porous and nanocolumnar (at 70 degrees and 85 degrees deposition angles). The strict control of composition, structure and nanostructure provided by this technique permits a fine tuning of the absorption edge and refraction index at 1500 nm of the porous films and their manufacturing in the form of SiOx-SiO2 porous multilayers acting as near infrared (NIR) 1D-photonic structures with well-defined optofluidic responses. Liquid tunable NIR Bragg mirrors and Bragg microcavities for liquid sensing applications are presented as proof of concept of the possibilities of this MS-OA manufacturing method as an alternative to the conventional electrochemical fabrication of silicon based photonic structures.


Septiembre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.05.273

Extraordinary visible photocatalytic activity of a Co0.2Zn0.8O system studied in the Remazol BB oxidation


KarimTanji; J.A.Navio; Jamal Naja; M.C.Hidalgo; Abdellah Chaqroune; C.Jaramillo-Páez; Abdelhak Kherbeche
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 382 (2019) 111877

ABSTRACT

Nanoparticles of CoxZn1-xO system with a nominal composition of x=0.2 were synthesized by the Solution Combustion Method (SCM). Structural and morphological studies as well as the chemical composition of the material were widely investigated by different techniques. Photocatalytic activity under UV and Visible illumination was studied by means of the Remazol Brilliant Blue dye (RBB) oxidation reaction. The effect of different experimental parameters, such as the initial dye concentration, photocatalyst mass, pH or hydrogen peroxide concentration on the RBB discoloration under UV irradiation was studied. Optimal experimental conditions were found to be a photocatalyst mass of 1 g.L-1, dye concentration of 20 mg.L-1 and solution pH of 11. Hydrogen peroxide addition was found to have no effect in the photocatalytic behavior of the material in the range of concentration studied (0 to 6•10-4 M). The optimal parameters were chosen to investigate the degradation of RBB under UV-illumination and just visible illumination. It was observed that the UV-photocatalytic property of pristine ZnO for the RBB removal was scarcely improved after cobalt-incorporation, whereas the effect of cobalt incorporation into ZnO greatly enhanced the RBB conversion under visible illumination. Even more interesting is that, under same experimental conditions, the visible efficiency of the Co-ZnO system is the same that the one showed under UV illumination, i.e. the system does not loose efficiency when illuminated only with visible light.


Septiembre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotochem.2019.111877

Insoluble and Thermostable Polyhydroxyesters From a Renewable Natural Occurring Polyhydroxylated Fatty Acid


Benitez, JJ; Guzman-Puyol, S; Cruz-Carrillo, MA; Ceseracciu, L; Moreno, AG; Heredia, A; Heredia-Guerrero, JA
Frontiers in Chemistry, 7 (2019) art. 643

ABSTRACT

To explore the potential of long chain polyhydroxyalkanoates as non-toxic food packaging materials, the characterization of polyesters prepared from a natural occurring polyhydroxylated C16 carboxylic acid (9,10,16-trihydroxyhexadecanoic or aleuritic acid) has been addressed. Such monomer has been selected to elucidate the reactivity of primary and secondary hydroxyl groups and their contribution to the structure and properties of the polyester. Resulting polyaleuritate films have been produced using an open mold in one-step, solvent-free self-polycondensation in melt state and directly in air to evaluate the effect of oxygen in their final physical and chemical properties. These polymers are amorphous, insoluble, and thermostable, being therefore suitable for solvent, and heat resistant barrier materials. Structurally, most of primary hydroxyls are involved in ester bonds, but there is some branching arising from the partial participation of secondary O-H groups. The oxidative cleavage of the vicinal diol moiety and a subsequent secondary esterification had a noticeable effect on the amorphization and stiffening of the polyester by branching and densification of the ester bond network. A derivation of such structural modification was the surface compaction and the reduction of permeability to water molecules. The addition of Ti(OiPr)(4) as a catalyst had a moderate effect, likely because of a poor diffusion within the melt, but noticeably accelerated both the secondary esterification and the oxidative processes. Primary esterification was a high conversion bulk reaction while oxidation and secondary esterification was restricted to nearby regions of the air exposed side of cast films. The reason was a progressive hindering of oxygen diffusion as the reaction progresses and a self-regulation of the altered layer growth. Despite such a reduced extent, the oxidized layer noticeably increased the UV-vis light blockage capacity. In general, characterized physical properties suggest a high potential of these polyaleuritate polyesters as food preserving materials.


Septiembre, 2019 | DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2019.00643

Processing and properties of Bi0.98R0.02FeO3 (R = La, Sm, Y) ceramics flash sintered at similar to 650 degrees C in <5 s


Gil-Gonzalez, E; Perejon, A; Sanchez-Jimenez, PE; Raj, R; Perez-Maqueda, LA
Journal of the American Ceramic Society, (2019)

ABSTRACT

We show that flash sintering produces single‐phase, nanograin‐sized polycrystals of isovalent‐substituted multiferroic ceramics of complex compositions. Single‐phase polycrystals of Bi0.98R0.02FeO3 (R = La, Sm, Y) were produced at a furnace temperature of ~650°C in a few seconds by the application of an electric field of 50 V cm−1, with the current limit set to 40 mA mm−2. The dielectric and insulating properties compared favorably with expected values. Impedance spectroscopy suggests electrically homogenous microstructure, except for the sample Bi0.98La0.02FeO3 that shows a small grain boundary contribution to the impedance. These results reinforce the enabling nature of flash sintering for ceramics which pose difficulties in conventional sintering because they contain low melting constituents or develop secondary phases during the sintering protocol.


Agosto, 2019 | DOI: 10.1111/jace.16718



2018


A QTAIM and DFT study of the dizinc bond in non-symmetric [CpZn2Ln] complexes


Ayala, R; Galindo, A
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, 898 (2019) UNSP 120878

ABSTRACT

Several [Zn2L2] and [CpZn2Ln] dizinc compounds have been studied by density functional theory (DFT) and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) in order to compare the nature and topology of the Zn-Zn bond in symmetrical and non-symmetrical complexes. The stability of these complexes have been evaluated on the basis of the formation energies. The disproportionation reaction has also been analysed indicating that symmetric complexes are less stable than non-symmetric ones. To certain extent, the properties of the [CpZn2Ln] complexes are between those of the [Zn2L2] and [Zn2Cp2] compounds. The asymmetry of the [CpZn2Ln] compounds is illustrated in terms of the topological properties, especially in the Source Function (SF) and Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. 


Octubre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jorganchem.2019.120878

Elusive super-hard B6C accessible through the laser-floating zone method


Moshtaghioun, BM; Cumbrera, FL; Gomez-Garcia, D; Pena, JI
Scientific Reports, 9 (2019) art. 13340

ABSTRACT

Boron carbide is among the most promising ceramic materials nowadays: their mechanical properties are outstanding, and they open potential critical applications in near future. Since sinterability is the most critical drawback to this goal, innovative and competitive sintering procedures are attractive research topics in the science and technology of this carbide. This work reports the pioneer use of the laser-floating zone technique with this carbide. Crystallographic, microstructural and mechanical characterization of the so-prepared samples is carefully analysed. One unexpected output is the fabrication of a B6C composite when critical conditions of growth rate are adopted. Since this is one of the hardest materials in Nature and it is achievable only under extremely high pressures and temperatures in hot-pressing, the use of this technique offers a promising alternative for the fabrication. Hardness and elastic modulus of this material reached to 52 GPa and 600 GPa respectively, which is close to theoretical predictions reported in literature.


Septiembre, 2019 | DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-49985-2

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