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Química de Superficies y Catálisis

Experimental optimization of Ni/P atomic ratio for nickel phosphide catalysts in reverse water-gas shift

Gul Hameed, Ali Goksu, Loukia-Pantzechroula Merkouri, Anna Penkova, Tomas Ramirez Reina, Sergio Carrasco Ruiz, Melis Seher Duyar
Journal of CO2 Utilization, 77 (2023) 102606

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Nickel phosphide catalysts show a high level of selectivity for the reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) reaction, inhibiting the competing methanation reaction. This work investigates the extent to which suppression of methanation can be controlled by phosphidation and tests the stability of phosphide phases over 24-hour time on stream. Herein the synthesis of different phosphide crystal structures by varying Ni/P atomic ratios (from 0.5 to 2.4) is shown to affect the selectivity to CO over CH4 in a significant way. We also show that the activity of these catalysts can be fine-tuned by the synthesis Ni/P ratio and identify suitable catalysts for low temperature RWGS process. Ni12P5-SiO2 showed 80–100% selectivity over the full temperature range (i.e., 300–800 °C) tested, reaching 73% CO2 conversion at 800 °C. Ni2P-SiO2 exhibited CO selectivity of 93–100% over a full temperature range, and 70% CO2 conversion at 800 °C. The highest CO2 conversions for Ni12P5-SiO2 at all temperatures among all catalysts showed its promising nature for CO2 capture and utilisation. The methanation reaction was suppressed in addition to RWGS activity improvement through the formation of nickel phosphide phases, and the crystal structure was found to determine CO selectivity, with the following order Ni12P5 >Ni2P > Ni3P. Based on the activity of the studied catalysts, the catalysts were ranked in order of suitability for the RWGS reaction as follows: Ni12P5-SiO2 (Ni/P = 2.4) > Ni2P-SiO2 (Ni/P = 2) > NiP-SiO2 (Ni/P = 1) > NiP2-SiO2 (Ni/P = 0.5). Two catalysts with Ni/P atomic ratios; 2.4 and 2, were selected for stability testing. The catalyst with Ni/P ratio = 2.4 (i.e., Ni12P5-SiO2) was found to be more stable in terms of CO2 conversion and CO yield over the 24-hour duration at 550 °C. Using the phosphidation strategy to tune both selectivity and activity of Ni catalysts for RWGS, methanation as a competing reaction is shown to be no longer a critical issue in the RWGS process for catalysts with high Ni/P atomic ratios (2.4 and 2) even at lower temperatures (300–500 °C). This opens up potential low temperature RWGS opportunities, especially coupled to downstream or tandem lower temperature processes to produce liquid fuels.

Noviembre, 2023 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jcou.2023.102606

Reactividad de Sólidos

Integration of calcium looping and calcium hydroxide thermochemical systems for energy storage and power production in concentrating solar power plants

Carro, A; Chacartegui, R; Ortiz, C; Arcenegui-Troya, J; Perez-Maqueda, LA; Becerra, JA
Energy, 283 (2023) 128388

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Energy storage is a key factor in the development of renewables-based electrical power systems. In recent years, the thermochemical energy storage system based on calcium-looping has emerged as an alternative to molten salts for energy storage in high-temperature concentrated solar power plants. This technology still presents some challenges that could be solved by integrating the thermochemical energy storage system based on calcium hydroxide. This work studies a novel concentrated solar power system integrating calcium-looping and calcium hydroxide thermochemical energy storage systems. The results show that the combined use of hydration -dehydration cycles in the calcination-carbonation processes of the calcium looping for energy storage could partially solve the issue related to the multicyclic deactivation of calcium oxide. The improvement in the con-version of calcium oxide during carbonation is demonstrated experimentally when hydration-dehydration cycles are combined. Numerical simulations demonstrate the technical feasibility of the integrated process, with effi-ciencies ranging between 38-46%, improved with the increase in calcium oxide conversion in the carbonator, showing the potential of the proposed integration.

Noviembre, 2023 | DOI: 10.1016/

Reactividad de Sólidos

Efficient SrO-based thermochemical energy storage using a closed-loop pressure swing

Amghar, N; Sánchez-Jiménez, PE; Ortiz, C; Pérez-Maqueda, LA; Perejón, A
Applied Thermal Engineering,

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The SrCO3/SrO system has recently attracted interest for thermochemical energy storage due to the high energy densities potentially attainable. However, the high temperatures needed to promote calcination involve a sintering-induced deactivation of SrO to carbonation. In this work, SrO-based samples have been tested using a closed-loop pressure swing approach involving calcinations and carbonations at absolute pressures of 0.01 bar and 1 bar CO2, respectively. Using low CO2 absolute pressure for calcination decreases the reaction temperature to 900 degrees C, thus reducing the deactivation of SrO. Moreover, the use of additives further improves the reactivity of the samples. The addition of ZrO2 and MgO by mechanical mixing and acetic acid treatment, respectively, results in samples with very high multicycle performance, yielding material energy storage densities after twenty cycles above 5.0 GJ/m3. These results significantly improve those obtained for similar samples in which calcinations and carbonations were carried out at an absolute pressure of 1 bar CO2. Regarding the integration of the thermochemical energy storage into concentrating solar power plants, calcining SrO-based materials at low pressure increases the net thermal-to-electric efficiencies by up to 6 % points compared to CaO-based materials calcined at the same conditions. The importance of experimental conditions and precursors in the multicycle behaviour of SrO-based materials for thermochemical energy storage is emphasized.

Noviembre, 2023 | DOI: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2023.121411

Materiales Coloidales

Mn2+-doped MgGeO3 nanophosphors with controlled shape and optimized persistent luminescence

González-Mancebo, D; Arroyo, E; Becerro, AI; Ocaña, M
Ceramics International, 49 (2023) 36791-36799

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Mn2+-doped MgGeO3 (MgGeO3:Mn2+) is an efficient persistent phosphor that emits red luminescence for long time after stopping excitation with UV light. For optical and biotechnological uses a precise control of particle size and shape is highly desired since these parameters may have a strong influence on the properties and suitability of phosphor materials for the intended applications. To the best of our knowledge, MgGeO3:Mn2+ has been synthesized by conventional solid-state-reaction, which yields particles of heterogeneous size and shape. Here, we report for the first time in the literature a salt-assisted method for the synthesis of MgGeO3:Mn2+ nanoparticles with uniform shape (nanorods) and a mean size of 350 nm x 99 nm. The rigorous study of the luminescence properties of the MgGeO3:Mn2+ nanorods revealed that whereas the optimum doping level for photoluminescence was 2.0 mol% Mn2+, the best persistent luminescence was attained with just 0.5 mol% Mn2+, which is ascribed to the different mechanisms of both luminescence processes. The optimum persistent nano-phosphor showed an intense red emission, which persisted at least 17 h after stopping the excitation. Such excellent properties make the developed nanophosphor an attractive candidate for use in optical and biotech-nological applications.

Noviembre, 2023 | DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2023.09.008

Química de Superficies y Catálisis

Glucose dehydration reaction over metal halides supported on activated charcoal catalysts

Martin, Gabriel Delgado; Lara, Beatriz; Bounoukta, Charf Eddine; Domínguez, María Isabel; Ammari, Fatima; Ivanova, Svetlana; Centeno, Miguel Ángel
Catalysis Today, 423 (2023) 114012

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Different metal halide catalysts supported on a commercial active charcoal have been synthesized, activated, characterized and tested in glucose dehydration to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural using a biphasic water/methyl isobutyl ketone media. The influence of the cation nature (K+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Mg2+) and anion nature (F-, Cl-, Br-) on the catalytic performance of the solid is discussed in terms of glucose conversion, HMF yield and products selectivity. The activation of the impregnated catalysts results in a great diversity of active sites, such as Bronsted sites (carboxylic groups), basic sites (metal oxide), and Lewis acid site (Mn+). Their distribution within the samples determinates the resulting products and the final HMF yield. 

Noviembre, 2023 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cattod.2023.01.019