Menú secundario

Artículos SCI



2018


Revealing the substitution mechanism in Eu3+:CaMoO4 and Eu3+,Na+:CaMoO4 phosphors


Becerro, AI; Allix, M; Laguna, M; Gonzalez-Mancebo, D; Genevois, C; Caballero, A; Lozano, G; Nunez, NO; Ocana, M
Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 6 (2018) 47

ABSTRACT

Eu3+-Doped calcium molybdate is an excellent phosphor for lighting and display devices due to the very intense pure red emission after UV excitation. It has been reported in the literature that the CaMoO4 unit cell volume expands after Eu3+ doping, in spite of the smaller Eu3+ ionic radius compared with Ca2+. Likewise, several studies found that the emission intensity of the phosphor could be improved by codoping with alkaline ions like Li+, Na+ or K+. None of these studies correlated the apparent volume expansion and luminescence enhancement with the crystal structural details. This paper analyses the aliovalent substitution mechanism and crystal structure of Eu3+:CaMoO4 and Eu3+,Na+:CaMoO4 phosphors using complementary techniques like Raman spectroscopy, EXAFS and SPD. We found that the substitution mechanism was different for both systems, with Ca site vacancies forming in the Eu3+:CaMoO4 phosphors and leading to Ca1-3xEu2xxMoO4 compositions, while the Eu3+,Na+:CaMoO4 phosphors formed Ca1-2xEuxNaxMoO4. SPD showed that the cell volume expansion observed with increasing Eu3+ content is related to the increase of the Mo-O bond distance due to the higher electronegativity of Eu3+ compared with Ca2+. Finally, it was shown that the luminescence properties, i.e. lifetime values and quantum yields (the latter reported here for the first time), do not depend on the presence of monovalent ions in the crystal structure but, exclusively, on the Eu3+ content of the phosphor. The integral and detailed analysis of the materials presented in this paper, ranging from crystal structure to luminescent properties including elemental composition, allows a full picture of the structure-property relationships that had never been addressed before for CaMoO4-based phopshors.


Diciembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1039/c8tc04595j

Improving the Bulk Emission Properties of CH3NH3PbBr3 by Modifying the Halide-Related Defect Structure


Tiede, David O.; Calvo, Mauricio E.; Galisteo-Lopez, Juan F.; Miguez, Hernan
Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 122 (2018) 27250-27255

ABSTRACT

The peculiar defect chemistry of hybrid organic–inorganic lead halide perovskites is believed to be partially responsible for the outstanding performance of this solution-processed material in optoelectronic devices. While most effort has been put on the management of halide defects (the ones presenting the highest mobility) for CH3NH3PbI3, its bromide counterpart has not been so widely studied. Although the former is the material of choice for photovoltaics, the latter is present in most light-emitting applications. Here, we report how the exposure of CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals to a bromine atmosphere strongly affects its emission properties. Such improvement takes place in the absence of apparent signs of degradation and remains for tens of hours. We propose an explanation based on the defect structure for this material where bromine-related defects can act as deep or shallow traps. These results are of relevance for a material expected to be present in a new generation of solution-processed light-emitting devices.


Diciembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b09315 DEC 6 2018

Mechanically induced combustion synthesis of niobium carbonitride nanoparticles


Jalaly, M; Gotor, FJ; Sayagues, MJ
Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 267 (2018) 106-112

ABSTRACT

Niobium carbonitride [Nb(C,N)] nanoparticles were synthesized by a combustive mechanochemical reaction in the Mg/Nb2O5/C3H6N6 system. High-energy ball milling was used to promote a mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction (MSR). Combustion occurred after a very short milling period of 5 min. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analyses revealed that the nature of the product is an intermixed carbonitride material. The formation mechanism of Nb(C,N) resulted from the magnesiothermic reduction of niobium oxide to generate elemental Nb, which then reacted with the species generated from the melamine decomposition.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jssc.2018.08.027

Analysis of the variables that modify the robustness of Ti-SiO2 catalysts for alkene epoxidation: Role of silylation, deactivation and potential solutions


Plata, JJ; Pacheco, LC; Remesal, ER; Masa, MO; Vega, L; Marquez, AM; Odriozola, JA; Sanz, JF
Molecular Catalysis, 459 (2018) 55-60

ABSTRACT

Catalytic epoxidation of alkenes plays an essential role in the transformation and synthesis of many organic chemicals. Ti atoms grafted on mesoporous silica, silylated on the surface, is considered the most active and selective catalyst for these reactions. However, the durability and robustness of the active centers remain as the main drawback in industry. In this paper, the characterization of industrial samples is combined with DFT calculations to rationalize the deactivation process of the catalyst and improve its performance. Silylating agents are characterized by experimental and simulated 29Si-NMR and their role in the catalytic mechanism is analysed. Potential deactivation processes are identified before, during and after the reaction. Modifications of the silylating agents and of the active center are proposed to improve the durability of the catalyst.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.mcat.2018.08.010

Environmentally friendly monolithic highly-porous biocarbons as binder-free supercapacitor electrodes


Orlova, TS; Shpeizman, VV; Glebova, NV; Nechitailov, AA; Spitsyn, AA; Ponomarev, DA; Gutierrez-Pardo, A; Ramirez-Rico, J
Reviews on Advanced Materials Science, 55 (2018) 50-60

ABSTRACT

A simple, low-cost and environmentally friendly method has been used to obtain highly porous biomorphic carbon monoliths with a good combination of interconnected macro-, meso- and microporosity, and good electrical conductivity and mechanical strength, making these biocarbon materials interesting for electrochemical applications as binder-free electrodes. Highly porous monolithic biocarbons were obtained from beech wood precursors through pyrolysis and subsequent surface modification in a steam heated to 970 degrees C with different activation times. The obtained biocarbons demonstrated good electrical conductivity and mechanical strength. They were studied as electrodes for supercapacitors in half cell experiments, demonstrating maximum gravimetric capacitance of 200 F g(-1) in a basic media at scan rate 1 mV s(-1). Galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments showed maximum capacitance of 185 F g(-1) at current density of 0.15 A g(-1) and similar to 100 F g(-1) at current density of 0.75 A g(-1). It has been shown that in addition to the developed porous surface, the micropores with diameters exceeding 1 nm play a key role for the enhanced electrochemical capacity. Long-cycling experiments demonstrated excellent stability of the monolithic biocarbon electrodes with no reduction of the initial capacitance values after 600 cycles in voltammetry.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1515/rams-2018-0027

Sustainable Fabrication of Plant Cuticle-Like Packaging Films from Tomato Pomace Agro-Waste, Beeswax, and Alginate


Tedeschi, G; Benitez, JJ; Ceseracciu, L; Dastmalchi, K; Itin, B; Stark, RE; Heredia, A; Athanassiou, A; Heredia-Guerrero, JA
ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 6 (2018) 14955-14966

ABSTRACT

Plant cuticles have been used as models to produce hydrophobic films composed of sodium alginate, the fatty acid fraction of tomato pomace agrowaste, and beeswax. The fabrication process consisted of the blending of components in green solvents (water and ethanol) and a subsequent thermal treatment (150 degrees C, 8 h) to polymerize unsaturated and polyhydroxylated fatty acids from tomato pomace. When sodium alginate and tomato pomace fatty acids were blended, free-standing films were obtained. These films were characterized to evaluate their morphological (SEM), chemical (solid-state NMR, ATR-FTIR), mechanical (tensile tests), thermal (TGA), and hydrodynamic (water contact angle, uptake, and permeability) properties. A comparison between nonpolymerized and polymerized samples was carried out, revealing that the thermal treatment represents a sustainable route to create structured, composite networks of both components. Finally, beeswax was added to the blend with the same amounts of sodium alginate and tomato pomace fatty acids. The presence of the wax improved the hydrophobicity and the mechanical and water barrier properties as well as decreased the water uptake. These results indicate that polymerized plant cuticle-like films have valuable potential for packaging applications.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b03450

Selective CO methanation with structured RuO2/Al2O3 catalysts


Munoz-Murillo, A; Martinez, LM; Dominguez, MI; Odriozola, JA; Centeno, MA
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 236 (2018) 420-427

ABSTRACT

Active and selective structured RuO2/Al2O3 catalysts for CO methanation using a flow simulating CO2-rich reformate gases from WGS and PROX units (H-2 excess, CO2 presence and 300 ppm CO concentration) were prepared. Both, the RuO2/Al2O3 powder and the slurry prepared from it for its structuration by washcoating of the metallic micromonolithic structure, were also active and selective. Both the slurry (S-RuAl) and micro monoliths (M-RuAl) were able to completely and selectively methanate CO at much lower temperatures than the parent RuAI powder. The optimal working temperature in which the CO conversion is maximum and the CO2 conversion is minimized was determined to be from 149 degrees C to 239 degrees C for S-RuAl and from 165 degrees C to 232 degrees C for M-RuAl, whilst it was from 217 degrees C to 226 degrees C for RuAI powder. TPR, XRD and TEM measurements confirmed that the changes in the activity and selectivity for CO methanation among the considered catalysts can be related with modifications in the surface particle size of ruthenium and its reducibility. These were ascribed to the metallic substrate, the presence of PVA and colloidal alumina in the slurry preparation, the aqueous and acidic media and the thermal treatment used, resulting in a more active and selective catalysts than the parent powder.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.05.020

Quantitative analysis of Yb 4d photoelectron spectrum of metallic Yb


Pauly, N; Yubero, F; Tougaard, S
Surface & Coatings Technology, 50 (2018) 1168-1173

ABSTRACT

The measured Yb 4d(3/2) intensity is larger than the Yb 4d(5/2) in X-ray photoelectron (XPS) emission of metallic Yb, which is unexpected. The shape and intensity of photoelectron peaks are strongly affected by extrinsic excitations due to electron transport out of the surface (including bulk and surface effects) and to intrinsic excitations due to the sudden creation of the static core hole. To quantitatively extract from experimental XPS the primary excitation spectrum (ie, the initial excitation process) of the considered transition, these effects must be included within the theoretical description. The combined effect of both extrinsic and intrinsic excitations can be described by an effective energy-differential inelastic electron scattering cross section for XPS evaluated by a dielectric response model with the dielectric function as only input. Then, using this cross section, a direct evaluation of the primary excitation spectrum is performed by standard peak shape analysis for thick homogeneous samples. We use this approach in the present paper to determine the Yb 4d photoemission spectrum for metallic Yb. We show that the unexpected larger intensity of Yb 4d(3/2) compared to 4d(5/2) can be fully accounted for by our model and that the total spectrum consists of a sum of symmetric primary excitation peaks.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1002/sia.6402

Valorization of Tomato Processing by-Products: Fatty Acid Extraction and Production of Bio-Based Materials


Benitez, JJ; Castillo, PM; del Rio, JC; Leon-Camacho, M; Dominguez, E; Heredia, A; Guzman-Puyol, S; Athanassiou, A; Heredia-Guerrero, JA
Materials, 11 (2018) art. 2211

ABSTRACT

A method consisting of the alkaline hydrolysis of tomato pomace by-products has been optimized to obtain a mixture of unsaturated and polyhydroxylated fatty acids as well as a non-hydrolysable secondary residue. Reaction rates and the activation energy of the hydrolysis were calculated to reduce costs associated with chemicals and energy consumption. Lipid and non-hydrolysable fractions were chemically (infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS)) and thermally (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)) characterized. In addition, the fatty acid mixture was used to produce cutin-based polyesters. Freestanding films were prepared by non-catalyzed melt-polycondensation and characterized by Attenuated Total Reflected-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), DSC, TGA, Water Contact Angles (WCA), and tensile tests. These bio-based polymers were hydrophobic, insoluble, infusible, and thermally stable, their physical properties being tunable by controlling the presence of unsaturated fatty acids and oxygen in the reaction. The participation of an oxidative crosslinking side reaction is proposed to be responsible for such modifications.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.3390/ma11112211

Exotic grain growth law in twinned boron carbide under electric fields


Moshtaghioun, BM; Gomez-Garcia, D; Rodriguez, AD
Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 38 (2018) 4590-4596

ABSTRACT

Grain growth is a ubiquitous phenomenon in all materials, and it affects both structural and functional properties. Despite its intrinsic importance, a full comprehension of grain growth from a fundamental point of view-i.e., from the nanoscale to the macroscale-is still a pending issue. In practical terms, our knowledge relies on the classical kinetic laws reported sixty years ago. 

This paper reports the violation of such classical laws in boron carbide ceramics consolidated by spark plasma sintering. The conjunction of high temperature gradients with large compressive stress when a pulse electric current passes through the ceramic powders gives rise to an intense twinning-detwinning formation. These forming steps at the grain boundaries change the grain mobility drastically. Therefore, a new 'exotic' law for grain-growth kinetics is found and validated at different temperatures and dwell times.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2018.06.029

Nanoporous Pt-based catalysts prepared by chemical dealloying of magnetron-sputtered Pt-Cu thin films for the catalytic combustion of hydrogen


Giarratano, F; Arzac, GM; Godinho, V; Hufschmidt, D; de Haro, MCJ; Montes, O; Fernandez, A
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 235 (2018) 168-176

ABSTRACT

In this work, we prepared SiC-supported Pt-Cu thin films by magnetron sputtering for use as catalysts for the combustion of hydrogen under oxidizing conditions. We tested the catalysts as prepared and after chemical dealloying. A methodology is presented to fabricate catalytic thin films of a desired composition with tailored magnetron targets with lower Pt consumption. The deposition gas was changed to prepare columnar (Ar-deposited) and closed-porous (He-deposited) films to study the effect of the microstructure on the activity. The effect of composition was also studied for the columnar samples. The as-prepared Pt-Cu thin films showed significant activity only at temperatures higher than 100 °C. Dealloying permitted an increase in the activity to achieve near room-temperature activity. The dealloyed closed-porous He-deposited sample was the most active, being able to convert as much as 13.15 LH2·min−1 gPt−1 at 70 °C (Ea = 1 kJ mol−1). This sample was preferentially dealloyed on the surface, yielding an almost pure Pt shell (96% at. Pt) and a Cu-depleted interior (71% at. Pt). This compositional inhomogeneity enabled the sample to achieve enhanced activity compared to the Ar-deposited columnar sample (with similar initial composition, but uniformly dealloyed), probably due to the compressive surface lattice strain. The dealloyed closed-porous He-deposited sample was shown to be durable over five cycles.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.04.064

Highly Efficient and Environmentally Stable Flexible Color Converters Based on Confined CH3NH3PbBr3 Nanocrystals


Rubino, A; Anaya, M; Galisteo-Lopez, JF; Rojas, TC; Calvo, ME; Miguez, H
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 10 (2018) 38334-38340

ABSTRACT

In this work, we demonstrate a synthetic route to attain methylammonium lead bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3) perovskite nanocrystals (nc-MAPbBr(3), 1.5 nm < size < 3 nm) and provide them with functionality as highly efficient flexible, transparent, environmentally stable, and adaptable color converting films. We use nanoparticle metal oxide (MOx) thin films as porous scaffolds of controlled nanopores size distribution to synthesize nc-MAPbBr(3) through the infiltration of perovskite liquid precursors. We find that the control over the reaction volume imposed by the nanoporous scaffold gives rise to a strict control of the nanocrystal size, which allows us to observe well-defined quantum confinement effects on the photo-emission, being the luminescence maximum tunable with precision between lambda = 530 nm (green) and lambda = 490 nm (blue). This hybrid nc-MAPbBr(3)/MOx structure presents high mechanical stability and permits subsequent infiltration with an elastomer to achieve a self-standing flexible film, which not only maintains the photo-emission efficiency of the nc-MAPbBr(3) unaltered but also prevents their environmental degradation. Applications as adaptable color-converting layers for light-emitting devices are envisaged and demonstrated.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1021/acsami.8b11706

Behavior of High-Strength Polypropylene Fiber-Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Exposed to High Temperatures


Rios, JD; Cifuentes, H; Leiva, C; Garcia, C; Alba, MD
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 30 (2018) 04018271

ABSTRACT

In this study we analyzed the use of high-performance structural concrete reinforced with polypropylene fibers in applications requiring long exposure times to high temperatures, such as thermal energy storage systems. We analyzed the behavior of the concrete at different temperatures (hot tests: 100 degrees C, 300 degrees C, 500 degrees C and 700 degrees C), cooled-down states (cold tests) and exposure times (6, 24, and 48h). We also experimentally determined the thermogravimetric analysis, fracture behavior, compressive strength, Young's modulus, and tensile strength of concrete. Subsequently, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the thermal and mechanical behavior of high-performance concrete under different thermal conditions. We applied longer exposure times to broaden the available results on the behavior of high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete when subjected to high temperatures. Results show that, once thermal and moisture equilibriums are reached, exposure time does not have any influence on mechanical properties. They also provide useful information about the influence of high temperatures on the different parameters of fiber-reinforced concrete and its application for thermal energy storage structures.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0002491

The Role of Surface Recombination on the Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells: Effect of Morphology and Crystalline Phase of TiO2 Contact


Idigoras, J; Contreras-Bernal, L; Cave, JM; Courtier, NE; Barranco, A; Borras, A; Sanchez-Valencia, JR; Anta, JA; Walker, AB
Advanced Materials Interfaces, 5 (2018) art. 1801076

ABSTRACT

Herein, the preparation of 1D TiO2 nanocolumnar films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is reported as the electron selective layer (ESL) for perovskite solar devices. The impact of the ESL architecture (1D and 3D morphologies) and the nanocrystalline phase (anatase and amorphous) is analyzed. For anatase structures, similar power conversion efficiencies are achieved using an ESL either the 1D nanocolumns or the classical 3D nanoparticle film. However, lower power conversion efficiencies and different optoelectronic properties are found for perovskite devices based on amorphous 1D films. The use of amorphous TiO2 as electron selective contact produces a bump in the reverse scan of the current-voltage curve as well as an additional electronic signal, detected by impedance spectroscopy measurements. The dependence of this additional signal on the optical excitation wavelength used in the IS experiments suggests that it stems from an interfacial process. Calculations using a drift-diffusion model which explicitly considers the selective contacts reproduces qualitatively the main features observed experimentally. These results demonstrate that for a solar cell in which the contact is working properly the open-circuit photovoltage is mainly determined by bulk recombination, whereas the introduction of a "bad contact" shifts the balance to surface recombination.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1002/admi.201801076

Influence of irrigation conditions in the germination of plasma treated Nasturtium seeds


Molina, R; Lopez-Santos, C; Gomez-Ramirez, A; Vilchez, A; Espinos, JP; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
Scientific Reports, 8 (2018) art. 16442

ABSTRACT

Plasma treatments had emerged as a useful technique to improve seed germination. In this work we investigate the influence of different irrigation conditions and plasma treatments on the germination of nasturtium seeds. During plasma treatment, seeds experience a progressive weight loss as a function of treatment time that has been associated to water release, a process that is more pronounced after longer plasma treatment times. Seeds treated for short times (<30 s) are able to germinate more efficiently than untreated specimen under hydric stress (drought conditions), while plasma treatments for longer times (up to 300 s) impaired germination independently on irrigation conditions. Characterization analysis of plasma treated seeds by FTIR-ATR, SEM/EDX and XPS showed that plasma treatment affected the chemical state of pericarp while, simultaneously, induced a considerable increase in the seeds water uptake capacity. The decrease in germination efficiency found after plasma treatment for long times, or for short times under optimum irrigation conditions, has been attributed to that the excess of water accumulated in the pericarp hampers the diffusion up to the embryo of other agents like oxygen which are deemed essential for germination.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-34801-0

High voltage vacuum-deposited CH3NH3PbI3–CH3NH3PbI3 tandem solar cells


Avila, J; Momblona, C; Boix, P; Sessolo, M; Anaya, M; Lozano, G; Vandewal, K; Miguez, H; Bolink, HJ
Energy & Environmental Science, 11 (2018) 3292-3297

ABSTRACT

The recent success of perovskite solar cells is based on two solid pillars: the rapid progress of their power conversion efficiency and their flexibility in terms of optoelectrical properties and processing methods. That versatility makes these devices ideal candidates for multi-junction photovoltaics. We report an optically optimized double junction CH3NH3PbI3-CH3NH3PbI3 tandem solar cell where the matched short-circuit current is maximized while parasitic absorption is minimized. The use of an additive vacuum-deposition protocol allows us to reproduce calculated stack designs, which comprise several charge selective materials that ensure appropriate band alignment and charge recombination. This rationalized configuration yields an unprecedented open circuit voltage of 2.30 V. Furthermore, this tandem solar cell features efficiencies larger than 18%, higher than those of the individual sub-cells. Low photo-current values allow reducing the losses associated to the series resistance of transparent contacts, which opens the door to the realization of efficient large area modules.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1039/c8ee01936c

Scalable synthesis of potential solar cell absorber Cu2SnS3 (CTS) from nanoprecursors


Hegedus, M; Balaz, M; Tesinsky, M; Sayagues, MJ; Siffalovic, P; Krulakova, M; Kanuchova, M; Briancin, J; Fabian, M; Balaz, P
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 768 (2018) 1006-1015

ABSTRACT

The present paper demonstrates an easy and scalable mechanochemical synthesis of ternary sulfide Cu2SnS3 (CTS) as a promising solar cell absorber. For the synthesis, pre-milled nanoparticles of CuS and SnS were used. The pure CTS phase was readily obtained after 60 min of milling in a laboratory planetary ball mill and 240 min in an industrial eccentric vibration industrial mill, respectively. The reaction progress of laboratory scale synthesis was studied by the quantitative Rietveld analysis. The reaction speed reaches its maximum at 4.6 min and the reaction is completed at approximately 60 min, according to the fitted data. The products of the syntheses were further characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results revealed formation of near-stoichiometric CTS nanoparticles with tetragonal I-42m symmetry. An average crystallites size of approximately 10-15 nm was determined for CTS phase. The SEM images support quintessential polydisperse character of the powders obtained by ball-milling approach. The materials seem to be suitable for photovoltaic applications with the band-gap energies of approximately 1.16-1.19 eV.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.07.284

High-temperature oxidation of CrAlYN coatings: Implications of the presence of Y and type of steel


Rojas, TC; Dominguez-Meister, S; Brizuela, M; Sanchez-Lopez, JC
Surface & Coatings Technology, 354 (2018) 203-2013

ABSTRACT

Nanolayered CrAIN and CrAIYN/CrAIN (average contents of Al approximate to 25 at.% and Y approximate to 1.6 at. %) coatings are deposited on M2 and 316 steel substrates and heated to 1000 degrees C in air for 2 h to study their oxidation mechanism, the thermal stability and the reactive element (RE) effect of yttrium. CrAIN on M2 develops a Cr2O3/Al2O3 passivation layer that preserves in high degree the fcc-CrAIN structure however iron ions leave the substrate and travel to the surface along the column boundaries. The CrAIYN/CrAIN coatings deposited on steels are not stable at 1000 degrees C, and the initial fcc-CrAIN phase is partially transformed to hcp-Al(O)N and Cr-Fe phases (M2) and Cr2N and Al2O3 (316). The addition of Y changes the predominant scale growth direction. Inward oxygen diffusion becomes dominant but a reduction of the oxide scale thickness as compared to CrAIN is not observed. The advanced microstructural analysis made by transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy determined that yttrium migrates mainly to the oxide scale (forming mixed oxides with substrate elements - V and Mo, either as dispersed particles or segregated at the grain boundaries) in M2, and to the oxide interface and column boundaries (forming Al-Y oxides and YN, respectively) in 316 steel. The benefits of addition of Y in improving the oxidation resistance are discussed comparatively with literature data. The RE effect of yttrium is thus observed to be dependent on the substrate, film architecture and composition.


Octubre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2018.09.020

Study of the thermal decomposition of historical metal threads


Perez-Rodriguez, JL; Perez-Maqueda, R; Franquelo, ML; Duran, A
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 134 (2018) 15-22

ABSTRACT

In this work, it is reported that thermal analysis techniques such as differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis are very useful for evaluating metals threads and fibres used in the manufacture of historical artifacts. Thermal analysis has been used to characterize the silk, cotton and linen employed as supports and the copper, silver and aluminium as the metallic components in the studied threads. Other organic compounds, mainly added for the conservation of the threads, have also been characterized.


Octubre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1007/s10973-017-6924-x

Photocatalytic H2 production from glycerol aqueous solutions over fluorinated Pt-TiO2 with high {001} facet exposure


V. Vaiano; M.A. Lara; G. Iervolino; M. Matarangolo; J.A. Navío; M.C. Hidalgo
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A-Chemistry, 365 (2018) 52-59

ABSTRACT

An optimized fluorinated TiO2 catalyst with high {001} facet exposure loaded with platinum (TiO2-PtFAC) was tested in the photocatalytic hydrogen production from glycerol solution under UV light irradiation. The samples were synthesized by direct hydrothermal treatment starting from two different types of precursors that are titanium tetraisopropoxide (I) or titanium butoxide (B), while platinisation was performed by photodeposition method. The obtained catalysts were characterised by different techniques (XRD, FESEM, TEM, BET, UV–vis DRS, XRF and XPS) and the results evidenced that anatase is the only crystalline phase present in all TiO2 samples. The morphology of the samples was seen as rectangular platelets particles where Pt particles were was observed all over the surface. The presence of Pt and F in the platinised samples was also confirmed by XRF and XPS analysis. The photocatalytic results have shown that the presence of Pt on TiO2{001}facet surface remarkably enhanced the hydrogen production from aqueous solution at 5 wt % of glycerol. Comparing the results obtained from the photocatalysts prepared by the two different precursors, it was found that the best performances in terms of H2 production was achieved with TiO2-PtFAC(I) (about 13 mmol L−1 after 4 h of irradiation time), while the H2 production was lower for TiO2-PtFAC(B) (about 9 mmol L−1 after 4 h of irradiation time). The effect of the operating conditions using TiO2-PtFAC(I) evidenced that the highest H2 production was obtained with a photocatalyst dosage equal to 1.5 g L−1, initial glycerol concentration at 5 wt% and a pH value equal to 7. Finally, a photocatalytic test was also performed on glycerol solution prepared with a real water matrix. Despite the presence of ions scavengers (chlorides and carbonates) in solution, TiO2-PtFAC(I) was able to reach a photocatalytic H2production of about 6 mmol L−1 after 4 h of UV light irradiation.


Octubre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotochem.2018.07.032

Páginas

icms