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2019


Biocompatibility assessment of up-and down-converting nanoparticles: implications of interferences with in vitro assays


Pem, Barbara; Gonzalez-Mancebo, Daniel; Moros, Maria; Ocana, Manuel; Becerro, Ana Isabel; Pavicic, Ivan; Selmani, Atida; Babic, Michal; Horak, Daniel; Vinkovic Vrcek, Ivana
Methods and Applications in Fluorescence, 7 (2019) 014001
Materiales Coloidales

ABSTRACT

The safety assessment of nanoparticles (NPs) is crucial during their design and development for biomedicine. One of the prerequisite steps during this evaluation is in vitro testing that employs cell-based assays not always validated and well-adapted for NPs. Interferences with in vitro assays may arise due to the nano-related optical, oxidative, fluorescent, surface and catalytic properties of NPs. Thus, proper validation of each assay system has to be performed for each NP type. This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of the most common in vitro cytotoxicity assays for the safety assessment of up- and down-converting lanthanide-doped NPs. Conventional cell viability tests and fluorescence-based assays for oxidative stress response were selected to determine the biological effects of up- and down-converting NPs to human brain cells. Comparison with known silver and iron oxide NPs was made for verification purposes. Both the plate reader and flow cytometric measurements were examined. The obtained results indicated that both types of Ln-doped NPs interfered to a much lesser extent than metallic NPs. In addition, the great potential of both up- and down-converting NPs for biomedicine was manifested due to their biocompatibility and low toxicity.


Enero, 2019 | DOI: 10.1088/2050-6120/aae9c8

La0.59Li0.24TiO3 ceramics obtained by spark plasma sintering: Electric behavior analysis


Pereira, JS; Guerrero, F; Romaguera-Barcelay, Y; Anglada-Rivera, J; Sales, JCC; Silva, RS; Zulueta, Y; Poyato, R; Gallardo, A; Almeida, A; Moreira, JA; Leyet, Y
Materials Research Express, 6 (2019) art. 015504
Reactividad de Sólidos

ABSTRACT

This work describes the electric study of Lithium lanthanum titanate (La0.59Li0.24TiO3) ceramics performed by Complex Impedance Spectroscopy. The nanoparticle powders have been synthesized through high energy ball milling and sintered via Spark Plasma Sintering technique. The experimental impedance data have been analyzed using the equivalent circuit model, the Extended Jonscher universal law and the derivative method. From these models, we have determined the dielectric response as well as the grain and grain boundary conductivity. The samples show ionic conductivity values between 10(-5) to 10(-4) S cm(-1) in the studied temperature range, and activation energy values 0.24 eV and 0.48 eV for grain and grain boundary, respectively. These results confirm the Li+ ions mobility through the crystalline structure of the material.


Enero, 2019 | DOI: 10.1088/2053-1591/aae496



2018


A comparative assessment of the UV-photocatalytic activities of ZnO synthesized by different routes


Jaramillo-Paez, C; Sanchez-Cid, P; Navio, JA; Hidalgo, MC
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 6 (2018) 7161-7171
Fotocatálisis Heterogénea: Aplicaciones

ABSTRACT

ZnO was synthesized by a precipitation procedure, free of template agent, by mixing aqueous solutions of Zn (OAc)(2) and dissolved Na2CO3 at pH ca. 7. This material was calcined at different temperatures (200-600 degrees C for 2 h). In two other alternative procedures, after the precipitation, the suspension was taken to hydrothermal treatments or to microwave treatments, subjecting them to calcination treatments at the same temperatures as the previous material. All materials were characterized using various techniques. The photocatalytic activity was assessed in the degradation of methyl orange and phenol using UV-illumination and evaluating the corresponding percentages of conversion and mineralization. A minimal difference between the relative intensities of the exposed faces (I100I002) related to XRD for the synthesized samples seems to be an important factor in obtaining good photocatalytic properties. This minimum, was achieved with a calcination treatment at 400 degrees C for 2 h. With this calcination treatment, no significant variations were observed in the photocatalytic activities of ZnO obtained by the three procedures, although in all cases the zinc oxides obtained exhibited, for each substrate, higher UV-photocatalytic activities than those obtained with TiO2 (P25) used as a reference catalyst. In all cases, the samples showed no photocatalytic activity in the visible region of the spectrum.


Diciembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jece.2018.11.004

CO/H-2 adsorption on a Ru/Al2O3 model catalyst for Fischer Trospch: Effect of water concentration on the surface species


Jimenez-Barrera, E; Bazin, P; Lopez-Cartes, C; Romero-Sarria, F; Daturi, M; Odriozola, JA
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 237 (2018) 986-995
Química de Superficies y Catálisis

ABSTRACT

Water presence and concentration strongly influence CO conversion and CS+ selectivity in the Fischer Tropsch reaction. In this work, the influence of the water concentration was investigated using a model Ru/Al2O3 (5 wt. %) catalyst. The surface species formed after CO and H-2 adsorption in dry and wet (different water concentrations) conditions were analyzed by FTIR. Firstly, water adsorption was carried out up to complete filling of the pores and then CO was put in contact with the catalyst. The absence of adsorbed CO species in these conditions evidences that CO diffusion in water controls the access of the gas to the active sites and explains the negative effect of high water concentrations reported by some authors. Moreover, the adsorption of a mixture of CO + H-2 + H2O, being the water concentration close to that needed to have a monolayer, and a dry mixture of CO + H-2 were carried out and compared. Results evidence that water in this low concentration, is able to gasify the surface carbon species formed by CO dissociation on the metallic sites. This cleaning effect is related to the positive effect of water on CO conversion detected by some authors.


Diciembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.06.053

Metal Micro-Monoliths for the Kinetic Study and the Intensification of the Water Gas Shift Reaction


Garcia-Moncada, N; Groppi, G; Beretta, A; Romero-Sarria, F; Odriozola, JA
Catalysts, 8 (2018) art. 594
Química de Superficies y Catálisis

ABSTRACT

A kinetic study of the water gas shift (WGS) reaction has been carried out on a Pt-based catalyst promoted by a Zr-based proton conductor. The investigation was first performed on powders with diluted feed mixtures and then extended to more severe and representative conditions by using a catalyst coated metallic micromonolith. Temperature measurements reveal that isothermal conditions were obtained along the micromonolith during the tested conditions. In addition, the very thin catalytic layer allows for the discarding of intraporous resistances, providing excellent conditions to analyse the kinetics of the WGS reaction under the integral regime. The proposed rate expression accounts for independence on CO concentration, an inhibiting effect of H-2 and a promoting effect of H2O; kinetic orders on CO and H-2 are in line with those reported in the literature for the Pt-based catalyst. Instead, the obtained reaction order of water (0.36) is significantly lower than that reported for unpromoted catalysts (typically 0.77-1.10) in good agreement with the proposed water-enhancer effect of the proton conductor on the rate-limiting step. Metallic micromonoliths turn out to be a powerful tool for the kinetic investigation, due to the absence of mass and heat transport limitations and represent a strategy for the intensification of the WGS unit for future applications of fuel processors in small mobile devices.


Diciembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.3390/catal8120594

Molten carbonate salts for advanced solar thermal energy power plants: Cover gas effect on fluid thermal stability


Fereres, S; Prieto, C; Gimenez-Gavarrell, P; Rodriguez, A; Sanchez-Jimenez, PE; Perez-Maqueda, LA
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 188 (2018) 119-126
Reactividad de Sólidos

ABSTRACT

The eutectic mixture Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 is investigated as a high temperature heat transfer fluid and storage medium alternative for molten salt solar thermal power plants. This salt has an operating temperature range of 400–700 °C, enabling the use of higher temperature/efficiency power cycles. However, this carbonate mixture is known to thermally decompose in air. This study evaluates the thermal stability of the salt mixture under different cover gases: air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and an 80/20 carbon dioxide/air mixture. Initial characterization is performed through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), followed by larger scale testing in a custom-made reactor to simulate conditions closer to its practical use. The results show improved thermal stability with a CO2 atmosphere. The decomposition kinetics under different cover gases are estimated from TGA data. However, larger-scale, longer duration experiments show much slower decomposition rates compared to the classical TGA approach. These findings indicate that the main contribution to mass loss in TGA is due to vaporization rather than thermal decomposition. Thus, a proper evaluation of the molten salt´s thermal stability can only be obtained from reactor experiments where vaporization is inhibited. Very long induction periods (of the order of days) are observed, suggesting that the kinetic decomposition mechanism is a nucleation and growth type. Other considerations for future plants incorporating these high temperature salts are discussed.


Diciembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2018.08.028

Policies and Motivations for the CO2 Valorization through the Sabatier Reaction Using Structured Catalysts. A Review of the Most Recent Advances


Navarro, JC; Centeno, MA; Laguna, OH; Odriozola, JA
Catalysts, 8 (2018) art. 578
Química de Superficies y Catálisis

ABSTRACT

The current scenario where the effects of global warming are more and more evident, has motivated different initiatives for facing this, such as the creation of global policies with a clear environmental guideline. Within these policies, the control of Greenhouse Gase (GHG) emissions has been defined as mandatory, but for carrying out this, a smart strategy is proposed. This is the application of a circular economy model, which seeks to minimize the generation of waste and maximize the efficient use of resources. From this point of view, CO2 recycling is an alternative to reduce emissions to the atmosphere, and we need to look for new business models which valorization this compound which now must be considered as a renewable carbon source. This has renewed the interest in known processes for the chemical transformation of CO2 but that have not been applied at industrial level because they do not offer evident profitability. For example, the methane produced in the Sabatier reaction has a great potential for application, but this depends on the existence of a sustainable supply of hydrogen and a greater efficiency during the process that allows maximizing energy efficiency and thermal control to maximize the methane yield. Regarding energy efficiency and thermal control of the process, the use of structured reactors is an appropriate strategy. The evolution of new technologies, such as 3D printing, and the consolidation of knowledge in the structing of catalysts has enabled the use of these reactors to develop a wide range of possibilities in the field. In this sense, the present review presents a brief description of the main policies that have motivated the transition to a circular economy model and within this, to CO2 recycling. This allows understanding, why efforts are being focused on the development of different reactions for CO2 valorization. Special attention to the case of the Sabatier reaction and in the application of structured reactors for such process is paid.


Diciembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.3390/catal8120578

Revealing the substitution mechanism in Eu3+:CaMoO4 and Eu3+,Na+:CaMoO4 phosphors


Becerro, AI; Allix, M; Laguna, M; Gonzalez-Mancebo, D; Genevois, C; Caballero, A; Lozano, G; Nunez, NO; Ocana, M
Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 6 (2018) 47
Materiales Coloidales, Materiales Ópticos Multifuncionales, Materiales y Procesos Catalíticos de Interés Ambiental y Energético

ABSTRACT

Eu3+-Doped calcium molybdate is an excellent phosphor for lighting and display devices due to the very intense pure red emission after UV excitation. It has been reported in the literature that the CaMoO4 unit cell volume expands after Eu3+ doping, in spite of the smaller Eu3+ ionic radius compared with Ca2+. Likewise, several studies found that the emission intensity of the phosphor could be improved by codoping with alkaline ions like Li+, Na+ or K+. None of these studies correlated the apparent volume expansion and luminescence enhancement with the crystal structural details. This paper analyses the aliovalent substitution mechanism and crystal structure of Eu3+:CaMoO4 and Eu3+,Na+:CaMoO4 phosphors using complementary techniques like Raman spectroscopy, EXAFS and SPD. We found that the substitution mechanism was different for both systems, with Ca site vacancies forming in the Eu3+:CaMoO4 phosphors and leading to Ca1-3xEu2xxMoO4 compositions, while the Eu3+,Na+:CaMoO4 phosphors formed Ca1-2xEuxNaxMoO4. SPD showed that the cell volume expansion observed with increasing Eu3+ content is related to the increase of the Mo-O bond distance due to the higher electronegativity of Eu3+ compared with Ca2+. Finally, it was shown that the luminescence properties, i.e. lifetime values and quantum yields (the latter reported here for the first time), do not depend on the presence of monovalent ions in the crystal structure but, exclusively, on the Eu3+ content of the phosphor. The integral and detailed analysis of the materials presented in this paper, ranging from crystal structure to luminescent properties including elemental composition, allows a full picture of the structure-property relationships that had never been addressed before for CaMoO4-based phopshors.


Diciembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1039/c8tc04595j

Improving the Bulk Emission Properties of CH3NH3PbBr3 by Modifying the Halide-Related Defect Structure


Tiede, David O.; Calvo, Mauricio E.; Galisteo-Lopez, Juan F.; Miguez, Hernan
Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 122 (2018) 27250-27255
Materiales Ópticos Multifuncionales

ABSTRACT

The peculiar defect chemistry of hybrid organic–inorganic lead halide perovskites is believed to be partially responsible for the outstanding performance of this solution-processed material in optoelectronic devices. While most effort has been put on the management of halide defects (the ones presenting the highest mobility) for CH3NH3PbI3, its bromide counterpart has not been so widely studied. Although the former is the material of choice for photovoltaics, the latter is present in most light-emitting applications. Here, we report how the exposure of CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals to a bromine atmosphere strongly affects its emission properties. Such improvement takes place in the absence of apparent signs of degradation and remains for tens of hours. We propose an explanation based on the defect structure for this material where bromine-related defects can act as deep or shallow traps. These results are of relevance for a material expected to be present in a new generation of solution-processed light-emitting devices.


Diciembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b09315 DEC 6 2018

Understanding the Role of the Acid Sites in 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Oxidation to 2,5-Furandicarboxylic Acid Reaction over Gold Catalysts: Surface Investigation on CexZr1-xO2 Compounds


Megias-Sayago, C; Chakarova, K; Penkova, A; Lolli, A; Ivanova, S; Albonetti, S; Cavani, F; Odriozola, JA
ACS Catalysis, 8 (2018) 11154-11164
Química de Superficies y Catálisis

ABSTRACT

A series of CexZr1-xO2 supports with different Ce/Zr molar ratios were utilized for the preparation of gold catalyst used in the selective oxidation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid. The used method of gold deposition allows the preparation of gold particles with homogeneous size and shape distribution, a formulation very useful for studies dedicated to revealing the support participation in the reaction. The supports are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using CO as probe molecule, and the sample catalytic activity is thereafter correlated to the support acid site distribution. The possible participation of its Lewis/Bronsted acidity in the reaction mechanism is also proposed.


Diciembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.8b02522 DEC 2018

Role of calcium looping conditions on the performance of natural and synthetic Ca-based materials for energy storage


Sarrion, B; Perejon, A; Sanchez-Jimenez, PE; Perez-Maqueda, LA; Valverde, JM
Journal of CO2 utilization, 28 (2018) 374-384
Reactividad de Sólidos

ABSTRACT

In this work, the multicycle activity of natural CaO precursors (limestone and dolomite) and Ca-based composites (Ca3Al2O6/CaCO3 and ZrO2/CaCO3 mixtures) has been studied for Thermochemical Energy Storage (TCES) in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants by means of the Calcium-Looping process (CaL), using two integration schemes proposed elsewhere that differ in the calcination stages. Under CSP-He conditions, calcination for CaO regeneration is performed under pure He at low temperatures (725 degrees C) while under CPS-CO2 conditions calcination is carried out under pure CO2 at high temperatures (950 degrees C). The latter avoids the use of selective membranes to separate He from CO2 even though it requires the use of more expensive materials for solar receptors. Carbonation/calcination conditions drastically affect the multicycle CO2 uptake of the materials tested. Effective multicycle conversion is higher in CSP-He tests due to the mild conditions employed for calcination, which mitigates CaO sintering. On the other hand, the harsh calcination conditions used in CSP-CO2 tests enhance sintering of CaO derived from limestone and the Ca3Al2O6/CaCO3 composite due to the low Tammann temperature of Ca3Al2O6. CaO sintering is hindered by the presence of inert oxides with high Tammann temperatures, such as ZrO2 in the ZrO2/CaCO3 composite and MgO in dolomite. Dolomite derived CaO shows high effective conversion values along the carbonation/calcination cycles when tested under both types of conditions, as compared to limestone and the composites, which suggests that the integration scheme based on CSP-CO2 conditions would be a feasible alternative to CSP-He if natural dolomite were used as CaO precursor.


Diciembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jcou.2018.10.018

Degradation of a LDPE film applied as a greenhouse cover design material: the effect of ageing and mechanical modelling


Garzon, Eduardo; Ortiz Rodriguez, Isabel Maria; Castillo, Jose; Jose Sanchez-Soto, Pedro
Revista de la Construcción, 17 (3) (2018) 457-464
Materiales Avanzados

ABSTRACT

In this work, we studied the mechanical performance of an LDPE film (0.22 mm in thickness) used as a material in the design of greenhouse covers. We investigated the effects of ageing at different periods of its service life and applying chemical substance treatments used as pesticides on greenhouse crops and after breakage using mechanical traction. Numerical simulations were performed using the finite element method. For this purpose, one section of the complete geometry of the greenhouse cover and different load conditions (1-5 kPa) were considered for the modelling. The performance of the polymer was assumed to be linearly elastic to simplify the governing equations. The study demonstrated that the LDPE film used was no longer effective as a greenhouse cover film due to the degradation of its mechanical properties. It was shown that the general performance of this film was in the plastic zone and its performance was non-linear. The results deduced from the present study are of interest because they show the material failure process of greenhouse covers in relation to the degradation process.


Diciembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.7764/RDLC.17.3.457 DEC 2018

New concept for old reaction: Novel WGS catalyst design


Garcia-Moncada, N; Gonzalez-Castano, M; Ivanova, S; Centeno, MA; Romero-Sarria, F; Odriozola, JA
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 238 (2018) 1-5
Química de Superficies y Catálisis

ABSTRACT

The viability of water gas shift catalytic system for mobile application passes through obligatory reactor volume reduction, achieved normally by using less charge of more efficient catalyst. Completely new concept for catalyst design is proposed: a catalytic system including classically reported WGS catalysts of different nature or active phase (Cu, Pt or Au) mechanically mixed with an ionic conductor. The influence of the later on catalyst activity is studied and discussed, more precisely its effect on the rate of the reaction-limiting step and catalysts' efficiency. It is demonstrated with this study, that the presence of an ionic conductor in contact with a WGS catalyst is essential for the water supply (dissociation and transport), thereby potentiating the water activation step, whatever the mechanism and catalyst overall performance.


Diciembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.06.068

Highly Efficient and Environmentally Stable Flexible Color Converters Based on Confined CH3NH3PbBr3 Nanocrystals


Rubino, A; Anaya, M; Galisteo-Lopez, JF; Rojas, TC; Calvo, ME; Miguez, H
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 10 (2018) 38334-38340
Materiales Ópticos Multifuncionales

ABSTRACT

In this work, we demonstrate a synthetic route to attain methylammonium lead bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3) perovskite nanocrystals (nc-MAPbBr(3), 1.5 nm < size < 3 nm) and provide them with functionality as highly efficient flexible, transparent, environmentally stable, and adaptable color converting films. We use nanoparticle metal oxide (MOx) thin films as porous scaffolds of controlled nanopores size distribution to synthesize nc-MAPbBr(3) through the infiltration of perovskite liquid precursors. We find that the control over the reaction volume imposed by the nanoporous scaffold gives rise to a strict control of the nanocrystal size, which allows us to observe well-defined quantum confinement effects on the photo-emission, being the luminescence maximum tunable with precision between lambda = 530 nm (green) and lambda = 490 nm (blue). This hybrid nc-MAPbBr(3)/MOx structure presents high mechanical stability and permits subsequent infiltration with an elastomer to achieve a self-standing flexible film, which not only maintains the photo-emission efficiency of the nc-MAPbBr(3) unaltered but also prevents their environmental degradation. Applications as adaptable color-converting layers for light-emitting devices are envisaged and demonstrated.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1021/acsami.8b11706

Behavior of High-Strength Polypropylene Fiber-Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Exposed to High Temperatures


Rios, JD; Cifuentes, H; Leiva, C; Garcia, C; Alba, MD
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 30 (2018) 04018271
Materiales de Diseño para la Energía y Medioambiente

ABSTRACT

In this study we analyzed the use of high-performance structural concrete reinforced with polypropylene fibers in applications requiring long exposure times to high temperatures, such as thermal energy storage systems. We analyzed the behavior of the concrete at different temperatures (hot tests: 100 degrees C, 300 degrees C, 500 degrees C and 700 degrees C), cooled-down states (cold tests) and exposure times (6, 24, and 48h). We also experimentally determined the thermogravimetric analysis, fracture behavior, compressive strength, Young's modulus, and tensile strength of concrete. Subsequently, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the thermal and mechanical behavior of high-performance concrete under different thermal conditions. We applied longer exposure times to broaden the available results on the behavior of high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete when subjected to high temperatures. Results show that, once thermal and moisture equilibriums are reached, exposure time does not have any influence on mechanical properties. They also provide useful information about the influence of high temperatures on the different parameters of fiber-reinforced concrete and its application for thermal energy storage structures.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0002491

The Role of Surface Recombination on the Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells: Effect of Morphology and Crystalline Phase of TiO2 Contact


Idigoras, J; Contreras-Bernal, L; Cave, JM; Courtier, NE; Barranco, A; Borras, A; Sanchez-Valencia, JR; Anta, JA; Walker, AB
Advanced Materials Interfaces, 5 (2018) art. 1801076
Nanotecnología en Superficies y Plasma

ABSTRACT

Herein, the preparation of 1D TiO2 nanocolumnar films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is reported as the electron selective layer (ESL) for perovskite solar devices. The impact of the ESL architecture (1D and 3D morphologies) and the nanocrystalline phase (anatase and amorphous) is analyzed. For anatase structures, similar power conversion efficiencies are achieved using an ESL either the 1D nanocolumns or the classical 3D nanoparticle film. However, lower power conversion efficiencies and different optoelectronic properties are found for perovskite devices based on amorphous 1D films. The use of amorphous TiO2 as electron selective contact produces a bump in the reverse scan of the current-voltage curve as well as an additional electronic signal, detected by impedance spectroscopy measurements. The dependence of this additional signal on the optical excitation wavelength used in the IS experiments suggests that it stems from an interfacial process. Calculations using a drift-diffusion model which explicitly considers the selective contacts reproduces qualitatively the main features observed experimentally. These results demonstrate that for a solar cell in which the contact is working properly the open-circuit photovoltage is mainly determined by bulk recombination, whereas the introduction of a "bad contact" shifts the balance to surface recombination.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1002/admi.201801076

Influence of irrigation conditions in the germination of plasma treated Nasturtium seeds


Molina, R; Lopez-Santos, C; Gomez-Ramirez, A; Vilchez, A; Espinos, JP; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
Scientific Reports, 8 (2018) art. 16442
Nanotecnología en Superficies y Plasma

ABSTRACT

Plasma treatments had emerged as a useful technique to improve seed germination. In this work we investigate the influence of different irrigation conditions and plasma treatments on the germination of nasturtium seeds. During plasma treatment, seeds experience a progressive weight loss as a function of treatment time that has been associated to water release, a process that is more pronounced after longer plasma treatment times. Seeds treated for short times (<30 s) are able to germinate more efficiently than untreated specimen under hydric stress (drought conditions), while plasma treatments for longer times (up to 300 s) impaired germination independently on irrigation conditions. Characterization analysis of plasma treated seeds by FTIR-ATR, SEM/EDX and XPS showed that plasma treatment affected the chemical state of pericarp while, simultaneously, induced a considerable increase in the seeds water uptake capacity. The decrease in germination efficiency found after plasma treatment for long times, or for short times under optimum irrigation conditions, has been attributed to that the excess of water accumulated in the pericarp hampers the diffusion up to the embryo of other agents like oxygen which are deemed essential for germination.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-34801-0

High voltage vacuum-deposited CH3NH3PbI3–CH3NH3PbI3 tandem solar cells


Avila, J; Momblona, C; Boix, P; Sessolo, M; Anaya, M; Lozano, G; Vandewal, K; Miguez, H; Bolink, HJ
Energy & Environmental Science, 11 (2018) 3292-3297
Materiales Ópticos Multifuncionales

ABSTRACT

The recent success of perovskite solar cells is based on two solid pillars: the rapid progress of their power conversion efficiency and their flexibility in terms of optoelectrical properties and processing methods. That versatility makes these devices ideal candidates for multi-junction photovoltaics. We report an optically optimized double junction CH3NH3PbI3-CH3NH3PbI3 tandem solar cell where the matched short-circuit current is maximized while parasitic absorption is minimized. The use of an additive vacuum-deposition protocol allows us to reproduce calculated stack designs, which comprise several charge selective materials that ensure appropriate band alignment and charge recombination. This rationalized configuration yields an unprecedented open circuit voltage of 2.30 V. Furthermore, this tandem solar cell features efficiencies larger than 18%, higher than those of the individual sub-cells. Low photo-current values allow reducing the losses associated to the series resistance of transparent contacts, which opens the door to the realization of efficient large area modules.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1039/c8ee01936c

Scalable synthesis of potential solar cell absorber Cu2SnS3 (CTS) from nanoprecursors


Hegedus, M; Balaz, M; Tesinsky, M; Sayagues, MJ; Siffalovic, P; Krulakova, M; Kanuchova, M; Briancin, J; Fabian, M; Balaz, P
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 768 (2018) 1006-1015
Reactividad de Sólidos

ABSTRACT

The present paper demonstrates an easy and scalable mechanochemical synthesis of ternary sulfide Cu2SnS3 (CTS) as a promising solar cell absorber. For the synthesis, pre-milled nanoparticles of CuS and SnS were used. The pure CTS phase was readily obtained after 60 min of milling in a laboratory planetary ball mill and 240 min in an industrial eccentric vibration industrial mill, respectively. The reaction progress of laboratory scale synthesis was studied by the quantitative Rietveld analysis. The reaction speed reaches its maximum at 4.6 min and the reaction is completed at approximately 60 min, according to the fitted data. The products of the syntheses were further characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results revealed formation of near-stoichiometric CTS nanoparticles with tetragonal I-42m symmetry. An average crystallites size of approximately 10-15 nm was determined for CTS phase. The SEM images support quintessential polydisperse character of the powders obtained by ball-milling approach. The materials seem to be suitable for photovoltaic applications with the band-gap energies of approximately 1.16-1.19 eV.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.07.284

Mechanically induced combustion synthesis of niobium carbonitride nanoparticles


Jalaly, M; Gotor, FJ; Sayagues, MJ
Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 267 (2018) 106-112
Reactividad de Sólidos

ABSTRACT

Niobium carbonitride [Nb(C,N)] nanoparticles were synthesized by a combustive mechanochemical reaction in the Mg/Nb2O5/C3H6N6 system. High-energy ball milling was used to promote a mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction (MSR). Combustion occurred after a very short milling period of 5 min. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analyses revealed that the nature of the product is an intermixed carbonitride material. The formation mechanism of Nb(C,N) resulted from the magnesiothermic reduction of niobium oxide to generate elemental Nb, which then reacted with the species generated from the melamine decomposition.


Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jssc.2018.08.027

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