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2021


Synergizing carbon capture and utilization in a biogas upgrading plant based on calcium chloride: Scaling-up and profitability analysis


Baena-Moreno, FM; Reina, TR; Rodriguez-Galan, M; Navarrete, B; Vilches, LF
Science of The Total Environment, 758 (2021) 143645

ABSTRACT

Herein we analyze the profitability of a novel regenerative process to synergize biogas upgrading and carbon dioxide utilization. Our proposal is a promising alternative which allows to obtain calcium carbonate as added value product while going beyond traditional biogas upgrading methods with high thermal energy consumption. Recently we have demonstrated the experimental viability of this route. In this work, both the scale-up and the profitability of the process are presented. Furthermore, we analyze three representative scenarios to undertake a techno-economic study of the proposed circular economy process. The scale-up results demonstrate the technical viability of our proposal. The precipitation efficiency and the product quality are still remarkable with the increase of the reactor size. The techno-economic analysis reveals that the implementation of this circular economy strategy is unprofitable without subsidies. Nonetheless, the results are somehow encouraging as the subsides needed to reach profitability are lower than in other biogas upgrading and carbon dioxide utilization proposals. Indeed, for the best-case scenario, a feed-in tariff incentive of 4.3 (sic)/MWh makes the approach profitable. A sensitivity study through tornado analysis is also presented, revealing the importance of reducing bipolar membrane electrodialysis energy consumption. Overall our study envisages the big challenge that the EU faces during the forthcoming years. The evolution towards bio-based and circular economies requires the availability of economic resources and progress on engineering technologies.


March, 2021 | DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143645

Mining Wastes of an Albite Deposit as Raw Materials for Vitrified Mullite Ceramics


Sanchez-Soto, PJ; Garzon, E; Perez-Villarejo, L; Angelopoulos, GN; Eliche-Quesada, D
Minerals, 11 (2021) 232

ABSTRACT

In this work, an examination of mining wastes of an albite deposit in south Spain was carried out using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis, thermodilatometry and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, followed by the determination of the main ceramic properties. The albite content in two selected samples was high (65-40 wt. %), accompanied by quartz (25-40 wt. %) and other minor minerals identified by XRD, mainly kaolinite, in agreement with the high content of silica and alumina determined by XRF. The content of Na2O was in the range 5.44-3.09 wt. %, being associated with albite. The iron content was very low (<0.75 wt. %). The kaolinite content in the waste was estimated from similar to 8 to 32 wt. %. The particle size analysis indicated values of 11-31 wt. % of particles <63 mu m. The ceramic properties of fired samples (1000-1350 degrees C) showed progressive shrinkage by the thermal effect, with water absorption and open porosity almost at zero at 1200-1250 degrees C. At 1200 ffiC, the bulk density reached a maximum value of 2.38 g/cm(3). An abrupt change in the phase evolution by XRD was found from 1150 to 1200 degrees C, with the disappearance of albite by melting in accordance with the predictions of the phase diagram SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O and the system albite-quartz. These fired materials contained as main crystalline phases quartz and mullite. Quartz was present in the raw samples and mullite was formed by decomposition of kaolinite. The observation of mullite forming needle-shape crystals was revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The formation of fully densified and vitrified mullite materials by firing treatments was demonstrated.


March, 2021 | DOI: 10.3390/min11030232

Zr and Fe on Pt/CeO2-MOx/Al2O3 catalysts for WGS reaction


Gonzalez-Castano, M; Ivanova, S; Centeno, MA; Ioanides, T; Arellano-Garcia, H; Odriozola, JA
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, (2021)

ABSTRACT

By evaluating the functional modifications induced by Zr and Fe as dopants in Pt/CeO2‐MOx/Al2O3 catalysts (M = Fe and Zr), the key features for improving water gas shift (WGS) performance for these systems have been addressed. Pt/ceria intrinsic WGS activity is often related to improved H2 surface dynamics, H2O absorption, retentions and dissociation capacities which are influenced greatly by the support nature. Two metals, iron and zirconia, were chosen as ceria dopants in this work, either in separate manner or combined. Iron incorporation resulted in CO‐redox properties and oxygen storage capacities (OSC) improvement but the formation of Ce‐Fe solid solutions did not offer any catalytic benefit, while the Zr incorporation influenced in a great manner surface electron densities and shows higher catalytic activity. When combined both metals showed an important synergy evidenced by 30% higher CO conversions and attributed to greater surface electron densities population and therefore absorption and activity. This work demonstrates that for Pt/ceria catalysts OSC enhancement does not necessarily imply a catalytic promotion.


March, 2021 | DOI: 10.1002/er.6646

The Complex Interplay of Lead Halide Perovskites with Their Surroundings


Galisteo-Lopez, JF; Calvo, ME; Miguez, H
Advanced Optical Materials, (2021) 2100133

ABSTRACT

Photoexcitation of lead halide perovskites induces a restructuration of the material that simultaneously enhances its emission properties and triggers its degradation. These concomitant processes are strongly dependent on the surroundings of the perovskite, both while and after being processed, underlining the relevance the environment and the interfacial design have in the stability and performance of these materials and the devices based on them. This shocking observation reveals that when subjected to external illumination, lead halide perovskites undergo a number of photophysical processes that strongly modify their structure and thus their optoelectronic properties. Such photoinduced instability stems from a defective structure directly linked to the low-temperature and solution-processed fabrication routes generally employed to build perovskite solar cells with efficiencies comparable to state-of-the-art values. On the other hand, these same inexpensive and unsophisticated procedures make this material a promising component in energy conversion devices. Here, an analysis is provided regarding the different impact on the perovskite structure, hence on its optoelectronic performance, that the interaction with its surroundings has, providing specific examples that highlight this interplay, describing the kind of modification it induces, and listing the related effects on the optoelectronic properties that should be accounted for when characterizing them.


March, 2021 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.202100133

Persistent luminescence of transparent ZnGa2O4:Cr3+ thin films from colloidal nanoparticles of tunable size dagger


Arroyo, E; Medran, B; Castaing, V; Lozano, G; Ocana, M; Becerro, AI
Journal of Materials Chemistry C, (2021)

ABSTRACT

We report on the fabrication of ZnGa2O4:Cr3+ transparent thin films and the evaluation, for the first time in the literature, of their persistent red to NIR emission. For this purpose, we have used a simple and economic global strategy based on wet processing methods from colloidal nanospheres with uniform size. A microwave-assisted hydrothermal method was first developed for the synthesis of precursor particles, which allows size tuning from 300 nm to 30 nm through simple modification of the Zn2+ precursor and the Cr3+ content of the starting solutions. ZnGa2O4:Cr3+ transparent thin films over quartz substrates were then easily fabricated by spin coating, and their structural and optical characteristics were analyzed in detail after annealing at high temperature to elucidate the effect of processing temperature and particle size on the properties of the films. Indeed, our results indicate that high temperature annealing does not compromise the transparency of the films but improves their photoluminescence. In addition, the analysis reveals that persistence luminescence in our films is rather independent of the size of the precursor nanoparticles. Due to their transparency and persistent emission properties, films fabricated from colloidal suspensions of ZnGa2O4:Cr3+ nanoparticles show great potential for application in the fields of chemical sensing, information storage, labelling, and anti-counterfeiting technology.


March, 2021 | DOI: 10.1039/d1tc00258a

Facile synthesis and characterization of a novel 1,2,4,5-benzene tetracarboxylic acid doped polyaniline@zinc phosphate nanocomposite for highly efficient removal of hazardous hexavalent chromium ions from water


Abdelghani Hsini, Yassine Naciri, Mohamed Benafqir, Zeeshan Ajmal, Nouh Aarab, Mohamed Laabd, J.A. Navío, F. Puga, Rabah Boukherroub, Bahcine Bakiz, Abdallah Albourine
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 585 (2021) 560-573

ABSTRACT

The present study describes the preparation of a novel 1,2,4,5-benzene tetracarboxylic acid doped polyaniline@zinc phosphate (BTCA-PANI@ZnP) nanocomposite via a facile two-step procedure. Thereafter, the as-prepared composite material adsorption characteristics for Cr(VI) ions removal were evaluated under batch adsorption. Kinetic approach studies for Cr(VI) removal, clearly demonstrated that the results of the adsorption process followed the pseudo second order and Langmuir models. The thermodynamic study indicated a spontaneous and endothermic process. Furthermore, higher monolayer adsorption was determined to be 933.88 mg g1 . In addition, the capability study regarding Cr(VI) ions adsorption over BTCA-PANI@ZnP nanocomposite clearly revealed that our method is suitable for large scale application. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed Cr(VI) adsorption on the BTCA-PANI@ZnP surface, followed by its subsequent reduction to Cr(III). Thus, the occurrence of external mass transfer, electrostatic attraction and reduction phenomenon were considered as main mechanistic pathways of Cr(VI) ions removal. The superior adsorption performance of the material, the multidimensional characteristics of the surface and the involvement of multiple removal mechanisms clearly demonstrated the potential applicability of the BTCA-PANI@ZnP material as an effective alternative for the removal of Cr(VI) ions from wastewater.


March, 2021 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2020.10.036

Solid-State Dewetting of Gold on Stochastically Periodic SiO2 Nanocolumns Prepared by Oblique Angle Deposition


Oliva-Ramirez, M; Wang, D; Flock, D; Rico, V; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Schaaf, P
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 13 (2021) 11385-11395

ABSTRACT

Solid-state dewetting (SSD) on patterned substrates is a straightforward method for fabricating ordered arrays of metallic nanoparticles on surfaces. However, a drawback of this procedure is that the patterning of substrates usually requires time-consuming and expensive two-dimensional (2D) fabrication methods. Nanostructured thin films deposited by oblique angle deposition (OAD) present at the surface a form of stochastically arranged periodic bundles of nanocolumns that might act as a patterned template for fabricating arrays of nanoparticles by SSD. In this work, we explore this concept and investigate the effect of three different types of OAD SiO2 thin films on the SSD of Au deposited on their surface. We demonstrate that the size and spatial distribution of the particles can be tailored through the surface morphology of these OAD film substrates. It has been found that the SSD of the evaporated Au layer gives rise to a bimodal size distribution of particles. A majority of them appeared as mesoparticles with sizes.100 nm and the rest as nanoparticles with similar to 10 nm, respectively, located either on top of the nanocolumns following their lateral distribution (i.e., resulting from a patterning effect) or incorporated inside the open mesopores existing among them. Moreover, on the SiO2-OAD thin films where interconnected nanocolumnar bundles arrange in the form of discrete motifs, the patterning effect gave rise to the formation of approximately one Au mesoparticle per motif, which is one of the assets of patterned SSD. The morphological, optical (i.e., plasmon resonance), and crystalline structural characteristics of Au mesoparticles suggest that the interplay between a discontinuous nanocolumnar surface acting as a template and the poor adhesion of Au onto SiO2 are key factors for the observed template effect controlling the SSD on the surface of OAD thin films.


March, 2021 | DOI: 10.1021/acsami.0c19327

Overcoming Pd-TiO2 Deactivation during H-2 Production from Photoreforming Using Cu@Pd Nanoparticles Supported on TiO2


Platero, F; Lopez-Martin, A; Caballero, A; Rojas, TC; Nolan, M; Colon, G
ACS Applied Nano Materials, 4 (2021) 3204-3219

ABSTRACT

Different Cu@Pd-TiO2 systems have been prepared by a two-step synthesis to obtain a bimetallic co-catalyst for the H-2 photoreforming reaction. We find that the tailored deposition of Pd covering the Cu nanoclusters by a galvanic replacement process results in the formation of a core@shell structure. The photocatalytic H-2 production after 18 h is 350 mmol/g on the Cu@Pd-1.0-TiO2 bimetallic system, which is higher than that on the monometallic ones with a H-2 production of 250 mmol/g on Pd-supported TiO2. Surface characterization by highangle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, H-2-temperatureprogramed reduction, CO-FTIR spectroscopy, and XPS gives clear evidence of the formation of a core@shell structure. With a Pd loading of 0.2-0.3 at. %, we propose a full coverage of the Cu nanoparticles with Pd. Long-time photoreforming runs show the enhanced performance of supported Cu@Pd with respect to bare palladium leading to a more stable catalyst and ultimately higher H-2 production.


March, 2021 | DOI: 10.1021/acsanm.1c00345

Functionalized biochars as supports for Pd/C catalysts for efficient hydrogen production from formic acid


Santos, JL; Megias-Sayago, C; Ivanova, S; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 282 (2021) 119615

ABSTRACT

Biomass waste product was used to generate biochars as catalytic supports for selective hydrogen production from formic acid. The supports were obtained after pyrolysis in CO2 atmosphere of non-pretreated and che-mically ZnCl2 activated raw materials (vine shoot and crystalline cellulose). The support series includes materials with different textural properties and surface chemistry. The support nature and especially textural properties firstly affects significantly Pd size and dispersion and its interaction with the support and secondly influence in a great extent the catalytic behavior of the final material. The presence of prevailing mesoporous character appeared to be the most important parameter influencing formic acid dehydrogenation and overall hydrogen production.


March, 2021 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2020.119615

Zirconium retention for minimizing environmental risk: Role of counterion and clay mineral


Montes, L; Pavon, E; Cota, A; Alba
Chemosphere, 267 (2021) 128914

ABSTRACT

Zr(IV) together with U(IV) are the major components of high-level radionuclide waste (HLRW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear power plants. Thus, their retention in the waste disposal is of great importance for the environmental risk control. Here, the influence of clay minerals on the retention of Zr(IV), as component of the nuclear waste and as chemical analogues of U(IV), has been evaluated. Three clay minerals, two bentonites and one saponite, were hydrothermally treated with three zirconium salts. A structural study at long-range order by X-ray diffraction and short-range order by NMR was performed to evaluate the generation of new zirconium phases and degradation of the clay minerals. Three immobilization mechanisms were observed: i) cation exchange of ZrO2+ or Zr4+ by clay minerals, ii) the precipitation/crystallization of ZrO2, and, iii) the chemical interaction of zirconium with the clay minerals, with the formation of zirconium silicates. 


March, 2021 | DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128914

A first insight into the microstructure and crack propagation in novel boron nitride nanosheet/3YTZP composites


Munoz-Ferreiro, C; Morales-Rodriguez, A; Gallardo-Lopez, A; Poyato, R
Boletin de la Sociedad Española de Cerámica y Vidrio, 60 (2021) 128-136

ABSTRACT

In this work, novel 3 mol% yttria tetragonal zirconia polycristalline (3YTZP) ceramic composites with boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) are investigated for the first time. Highly densified composites with 1 and 4 vol% BNNS were obtained by spark plasma sintering (SPS) after BNNS synthesis using a solution exfoliation method and BNNS dispersion into the ceramic powder by ultrasonication. The BNNS presented homogeneous distribution throughout the ceramic matrix and preferential alignment in the plane perpendicular to the pressing axis during SPS. The BNNS incorporation had practically no effect on the Vickers hardness of the material nor on the Young's modulus. Anisotropy in crack development was found in the composite with 4% vol BNNS, together with a mechanism of extensive microcracking. Several energy-absorbing mechanisms during crack propagation, such as crack deflection, crack bridging, crack branching, BNNS pull-out and BNNS debonding, were identified in the composites by a close observation of the indentation-induced fracture paths.


March, 2021 | DOI: 10.1016/j.bsecv.2020.02.003

Understanding the opportunities of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) for CO2 capture and gas-phase CO2 conversion processes: a comprehensive overview


Gandara-Loe, J.; Pastor-Pérez, L.; Bobadilla, L.F.; Odriozola, J.A.; Reina, T.R.
Reaction Chemistry & Engineering, 6 (2021) 787-814

ABSTRACT

The rapid increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide is one of the most pressing problems facing our planet. This challenge has motivated the development of different strategies not only in the reduction of CO2 concentrations via green energy alternatives but also in the capture and conversion of CO2 into value-added products. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a relatively new class of porous materials with unique structural characteristics such as high surface areas, chemical tunability and stability, and have been extensively studied as promising materials to address this challenge. This comprehensive review identifies the specific structural and chemical properties of MOFs that result in advanced CO2 capture capacities and fairly encouraging catalytic CO2 conversion behaviour. More importantly, we describe an interconnection among the unique properties of MOFs and the engineering aspects of these intriguing materials towards CO2 capture and conversion processes.


March, 2021 | DOI: 10.1039/d1re00034a

Nanofibrous Gelatin-Based Biomaterial with Improved Biomimicry Using D-Periodic Self-Assembled Atelocollagen


Borrego-Gonzalez, S; Dalby, MJ; Diaz-Cuenca, A
Biomimetics, 6 (2001) 20

ABSTRACT

Design of bioinspired materials that mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) at the nanoscale is a challenge in tissue engineering. While nanofibrillar gelatin materials mimic chemical composition and nano-architecture of natural ECM collagen components, it lacks the characteristic D-staggered array (D-periodicity) of 67 nm, which is an important cue in terms of cell recognition and adhesion properties. In this study, a nanofibrous gelatin matrix with improved biomimicry is achieved using a formulation including a minimal content of D-periodic self-assembled atelocollagen. We suggest a processing route approach consisting of the thermally induced phase separation of the gelatin based biopolymeric mixture precursor followed by chemical-free material cross-linking. The matrix nanostructure is characterized using field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The cell culture assays indicate that incorporation of 2.6 wt.% content of D-periodic atelocollagen to the gelatin material, produces a significant increase of MC3T3-E1 mouse preosteoblast cells attachment and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) proliferation, in comparison with related bare gelatin matrices. The presented results demonstrate the achievement of an efficient route to produce a cost-effective, compositionally defined and low immunogenic “collagen-like” instructive biomaterial, based on gelatin.


March, 2021 | DOI: 10.3390/biomimetics6010020

Cation-driven electrical conductivity in Ta-doped orthorhombic zirconia ceramics


Moshtaghioun, BM; Laguna-Bercero, MA; Pena, JI; Gomez-Garcia, D; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A
Ceramics International, 47 (2021) 7248-7522

ABSTRACT

This paper is devoted to the study of the electrical conductivity of tantalum-doped zirconia ceramics prepared by spark plasma sintering. In this study, the temperature dependence of conductivity in as-prepared specimens and in those previously annealed in air is determined and compared. A semi-empirical model, which is based on the oxidation states of the cations, has been developed and successfully assessed. According to this, the conductivity is basically controlled by the diffusion of tetravalent zirconium cations in both cases, although the concentration of these species varies drastically with the amount of induced oxygen vacancies. This is a quite unexpected fact, since conductivity is normally controlled by anionic diffusion in zirconia ceramics. This option is forbidden here due to the presence of substitutional pentavalent cations. Therefore, conductivity values are much lower than those reported in trivalent or divalent substitutional cation doped zirconia ceramics.


March, 2021 | DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2020.10.227

Insights into the role of the layer architecture of Cr-Ti-N based coatings in long-term high temperature oxidation experiments in steam atmosphere


Mato, S; Sanchez-Lopez, JC; Barriga, J; Perez, FJ; Alcala, G
Ceramics International, 47 (2021) 4257-4266

ABSTRACT

Knowledge on hard coatings has been applied in the energy field extending their use as protecting coatings of steam power generation plants components. The role of the layer architecture of Cr-Ti-N based coatings deposited by reactive cathodic arc evaporation on P92 steel substrates was studied with the focus on their oxidation resistance at 650 degrees C in 100% steam atmosphere up to 2000 h. Characterization of the coatings was performed by gravimetry, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermodynamic simulations using the CALPHAD method, Rockwell C indentation and nanoindentation. The layered arrangement improves the oxidation resistance of TiN under the working conditions of steam power plants, as well as the mechanical properties of CrN. The produced architectures performance under the described working conditions boosts the understanding of the processes taking place at high temperature, making possible the design of optimal coatings combining the best behavior of both nitrides for each specific application, reaching a corrosion protection at high temperature in water vapor comparable to that of CrN and a hardness and Young's modulus as high as those of TiN.


February, 2021 | DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2020.10.003

Active sites and optimization of mixed copper-cobalt oxide anodes for anion exchange membrane water electrolysis


Lopez-Fernandez, E; Gil-Rostra, J; Escudero, C; Villar-Garcia, IJ; Yubero, F; Consuegra, AD; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
Journal of Power Sources, 485 (2021) 229217

ABSTRACT

The optimization of the catalysts incorporated to the electrodes for anion exchange membrane water electmlysers is a key issue to maximize their performance through the improvement of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) yield. In this work, we show that the modification of the microstructure and the chemical properties of a mixed copper-cobalt oxide anode may contribute to increase the activity of this reaction. For this purpose, the OER has been systematically studied, either in a half cell or in a membrane electrode assembly configuration, as a function of the load and agglomeration degree of the catalysts used as electrodes, as prepared on a carbon paper support by magnetron sputtering deposition in an oblique angle configuration. Chemical analysis by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and electrochemical analysis by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy have shown that cobalt-copper mixed oxide catalysts with a 1.8 Co/Cu atomic ratio and about one micron equivalent thickness maximizes the cell performance. The chemical, structural and microstructural factors controlling the final behaviour of these anodes and accounting for this maximization of the reaction yield are discussed on the basis of these characterization results and as a function of preparation variables of the electrodes and operating conditions of the cell.


February, 2021 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2020.229217

The Possible Detriment of Oxygen in Creep of Alumina and Zirconia Ceramic Composites Reinforced with Graphene


Cano-Crespo, R; Rivero-Antunez, P; Gomez-Garcia, D; Moreno, R; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A
Materials, 14 (2021) 984

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to give an answer to the following question: is the oxidation of graphene a critical issue for high-temperature plasticity in graphene-reinforced ceramics? To give a convincing reply, we will focus on two very different graphene-based ceramic composites: reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-reinforced alumina (alpha-Al2O3) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-reinforced yttria tetragonal zirconia (t-ZrO2). The processing of the powders has been made using a colloidal route, and after that, a spark plasma sintering process was performed in order to densify the samples. Creep tests were performed at temperatures between 1200-1250 degrees C in an argon atmosphere. The microstructure obtained by SEM of the sintered and tested specimens was characterized quantitatively to elucidate the deformation mechanism. Raman spectroscopy was carried out to check the integrity of the graphene. The average grain size was in the order of 1 mu m and the shape factor was 0.7 for all the studied materials. The integrity of the graphene was checked before and after the creep experiments. The careful analysis of the creep tests shows that graphene oxide or its reduced version are not efficient phases for creep resistance improvement in general, contrary to what is reported elsewhere. However, the results permit the suggestion of a creep improvement in nanocomposites at a very high temperature regime due to an enhanced reactivity of oxygen between carbon and alumina interfaces. In the case of zirconia, the results give us the conclusion that the oxidation of graphene is a highly detrimental issue regarding the improvement of high-temperature plasticity.


February, 2021 | DOI: 10.3390/ma14040984

Influence of Successive Chemical and Thermochemical Treatments on Surface Features of Ti6Al4V Samples Manufactured by SLM


Gonzalez, JE; de Armas, G; Negrin, J; Beltran, AM; Trueba, P; Gotor, FJ; Peon, E; Torres, Y
Metals, 11 (2021) 313

ABSTRACT

Ti6Al4V samples, obtained by selective laser melting (SLM), were subjected to successive treatments: acid etching, chemical oxidation in hydrogen peroxide solution and thermochemical processing. The effect of temperature and time of acid etching on the surface roughness, morphology, topography and chemical and phase composition after the thermochemical treatment was studied. The surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and contact profilometry. The temperature used in the acid etching had a greater influence on the surface features of the samples than the time. Acid etching provided the original SLM surface with a new topography prior to oxidation and thermochemical treatments. A nanostructure was observed on the surfaces after the full process, both on their protrusions and pores previously formed during the acid etching. After the thermochemical treatment, the samples etched at 40 °C showed macrostructures with additional submicro and nanoscale topographies. When a temperature of 80 °C was used, the presence of micropores and a thicker anatase layer, detectable by X-ray diffraction, were also observed. These surfaces are expected to generate greater levels of bioactivity and high biomechanics fixation of implants as well as better resistance to fatigue.


February, 2021 | DOI: 10.3390/met11020313

A Novel, Simple and Highly Efficient Route to Obtain PrBaMn2O5+δ Double Perovskite: Mechanochemical Synthesis


Garcia-Garcia, FJ; Sayagues, MJ; Gotor, FJ
Nanomaterials, 11 (2021) 380

ABSTRACT

In this work, a mechanochemical route was proposed for the synthesis of the PrBaMn2O5+δ (PMBO) double layered perovskite phase. The mechanochemical reaction between Pr6O11, BaO2, and MnO powders with cationic stoichiometric ratios of 1/1/2 for Pr/Ba/Mn was performed using high-energy milling conditions in air. After 150 min of milling, a new phase with perovskite structure and cubic symmetry consistent with the A-site disordered Pr0.5Ba0.5MnO3 phase was formed. When this new phase was subsequently annealed at a high temperature in an inert Ar atmosphere, the layered PrBaMn2O5+δ phase was obtained without needing to use a reducing atmosphere. At 1100 °C, the fully reduced layered PrBaMn2O5 phase was achieved. A weight gain was observed in the 200–300 °C temperature range when this fully reduced phase was annealed in air, which was consistent with the transformation into the fully oxidized PrBaMn2O6 phase. The microstructural characterization by SEM, TEM, and HRTEM ascertained the formation of the intended PrBaMn2O5+δ phase. Electrical characterization shows very high electrical conductivity of layered PBMO in a reducing atmosphere and suitable in an oxidizing atmosphere, becoming, therefore, excellent candidates as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC electrodes).


February, 2021 | DOI: 10.3390/nano11020380

Enhanced UV and visible light photocatalytic properties of synthesized AgBr/SnO2 composites


Puga, F.; Navío, J.A.; Hidalgo, M.C.
Separation and Purification Tecnology, 257 (2021) 117948

ABSTRACT

Composites (AgBr/SnO2) comprised of AgBr and SnO2 with different molar % of bare SnO2, have been synthesized by simple precipitation methods; the bare SnO2 used, was synthesized by hydrothermal procedure. Samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2-adsorption, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared photocatalysts was evaluated through photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and caffeic acid (CAFA) under UV and Visible illumination. In photocatalytic degradation studies, for both substrates, conversion rates of around 95% were found in 45 min of both UV-illumination and 85% under visible lighting. These conversion rates were superior than the conversion rates of pure parental components, AgBr and SnO2 under the same experimental conditions. At least, for RhB no loss of photocatalytic activity has been observed after five recycles although the mineralization degree progressively diminished along the recycles. The enhanced photocatalytic degradation of AgBr/SnO2 compounds was attributed, in part, to a synergistic increase in adsorption viability, as well as to the effective separation of photoinduced load carriers that resulted from the formation of a heterojunction according to the type II junction. Radical scavengers’ experiments indicated that active oxidant species as O2.−, ·OH and h+ all are involved in this photocatalytic system, although it seems that O2.− played the major role in the photocatalytic degrading of RhB by AgBr/SnO2 composites. In summary, coupling AgBr with SnO2 remarkably improves the photocatalytic activity under both UV and visible-illumination with respect to the parental components. These features open the route to future applications of this material in the field of environmental remediation.


February, 2021 | DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2020.117948

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