Scientific Papers in SCI

2016


Title: Perspectives on oblique angle deposition of thin films: From fundamentals to devices
Author(s): Barranco, A; Borras, A; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Palmero, A
Source: Prograss in Materials Science, 78 (2016) 59-153

abstract | fulltext

The oblique angle configuration has emerged as an invaluable tool for the deposition of nanostructured thin films. This review develops an up to date description of its principles, including the atomistic mechanisms governing film growth and nanostructuration possibilities, as well as a comprehensive description of the applications benefiting from its incorporation in actual devices. In contrast with other reviews on the subject, the electron beam assisted evaporation technique is analyzed along with other methods operating at oblique angles, including, among others, magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser or ion beam-assisted deposition techniques. To account for the existing differences between deposition in vacuum or in the presence of a plasma, mechanistic simulations are critically revised, discussing well-established paradigms such as the tangent or cosine rules, and proposing new models that explain the growth of tilted porous nanostructures. In the second part, we present an extensive description of applications wherein oblique-angle-deposited thin films are of relevance. From there, we proceed by considering the requirements of a large number of functional devices in which these films are currently being utilized (e.g., solar cells, Li batteries, electrochromic glasses, biomaterials, sensors, etc.), and subsequently describe how and why these nanostructured materials meet with these needs. 

March, 2016 | DOI: 10.1016/j.pmatsci.2015.06.003

Title: Investigation of a Pt containing washcoat on SiC foam for hydrogen combustion applications
Author(s): Fernandez, A; Arzac, GM; Vogt, UF; Hosoglu, F; Borgschulte, A; de Haro, MCJ; Montes, O; Zuttel, A
Source: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 180 (2016) 336-343

abstract | fulltext

A commercial Pt based washcoat, used for catalytic methane combustion, was studied supported on a commercial SiC foam as catalytic material (Pt/SiC) for catalytic hydrogen combustion (CHC). Structural and chemical characterization was performed using Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The reaction was monitored following water concentration by Fourier Transform Infrared spectra (FTIR). The FTIR method was compared with H2 detection by Gas Cromatography (GC) and has shown to be adequate to study the kinetics of the CHC reaction in steady state under our experimental conditions (very lean 1% (v/v) H2/air mixtures). The catalyst is composed of 5–20 nm disperse Pt nanoparticles decorating a mixture of high surface area Al2O3 and small amounts of ceria supported on the SiC foam which also contains alumina as binder. The Pt/SiC catalytic material has demonstrated to be active enough to start up the reaction in a few seconds at room temperature. The material has been able to convert at least 18.5 Lhydrogen min−1 gPt−1 at room temperature in conditions of excess of catalyst. The Pt/SiC material was studied after use using XPS and no significant changes on Pt oxidation states were found. The material was characterized from a kinetic point of view. From the conversion-temperature plot a T50(temperature for 50% conversion) of 34 °C was obtained. Activation energy measured in our conditions was 35 ± 1 kJ mol−1.

January, 2016 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2015.06.040

Title: The Calcium-Looping technology for CO2 capture: On the important roles of energy integration and sorbent behavior
Author(s): Perejon, A; Romeo, LM; Lara, Y; Lisbona, P; Martinez, A; Valverde, JM
Source: Applied Energy, 162 (2016) 787-807

abstract | fulltext

The Calcium Looping (CaL) technology, based on the multicyclic carbonation/calcination of CaO in gas-solid fluidized bed reactors at high temperature, has emerged in the last years as a potentially low cost technology for CO2 capture. In this manuscript a critical review is made on the important roles of energy integration and sorbent behavior in the process efficiency. Firstly, the strategies proposed to reduce the energy demand by internal integration are discussed as well as process modifications aimed at optimizing the overall efficiency by means of external integration. The most important benefit of the high temperature CaL cycles is the possibility of using high temperature streams that could reduce significantly the energy penalty associated to CO2 capture. The application of the CaL technology in precombustion capture systems and energy integration, and the coupling of the CaL technology with other industrial processes are also described. In particular, the CaL technology has a significant potential to be a feasible CO2 capture system for cement plants. A precise knowledge of the multicyclic CO2 capture behavior of the sorbent at the CaL conditions to be expected in practice is of great relevance in order to predict a realistic capture efficiency and energy penalty from process simulations. The second part of this manuscript will be devoted to this issue. Particular emphasis is put on the behavior of natural limestone and dolomite, which would be the only practical choices for the technology to meet its main goal of reducing CO2 capture costs. Under CaL calcination conditions for CO2 capture (necessarily implying high CO2 concentration in the calciner), dolomite seems to be a better alternative to limestone as CaO precursor. The proposed techniques of recarbonation and thermal/mechanical pretreatments to reactivate the sorbent and accelerate calcination will be the final subjects of this review.

January, 2016 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.10.121

Title: High temperature internal friction in a Ti-46Al-1Mo-0.2Si intermetallic, comparison with creep behaviour
Author(s): Castillo-Rodriguez, M; No, ML; Jimenez, JA; Ruano, OA; Juan, JS
Source: Acta Materialia, 103 (2016) 46-46

abstract | fulltext

Advanced gamma-TiAl based intermetallics Mo-bearing have been developed to obtain the fine-grained microstructure required for superplastic deformation to be used during further processing. In the present work we have studied an alloy of Ti-46.8Al-1Mo-0.2Si (at%) with two different microstructures, ascast material with a coarse grain size above 300 mu m, and the hot extruded material exhibiting a grain size smaller than 20 mu m. We have used a mechanical spectrometer especially developed for high temperature internal friction measurements to study the defect mobility processes taking place at high temperature. The internal friction spectra at different frequencies has been studied and analyzed up to 1360 K in order to characterize the relaxation processes appearing inthis temperature range. A relaxation peak, with a maximum in between 900 K and 1080 K, depending on the oscillating frequency, has been attributed to Ti-atoms diffusion by the stress-induced reorientation of Al-V-Ti-Al elastic dipoles. The high temperature background in both microstructural states, as-cast and extruded, has been analyzed, measuring the apparent activation parameters, in particular the apparent energies of E-cast(IF) = 4.4 +/- 0.05 eV and E-ext(IF) = 4.75 +/- 0.05 eV respectively. These results have been compared to those obtained on the same materials by creep deformation. We may conclude that the activation parameters obtained by internal friction analysis, are consistent with the ones measured by creep. Furthermore, the analysis of the high temperaturebackground allows establish the difference on creep resistance for both microstructural states. 

January, 2016 | DOI: 10.1016/j.actamat.2015.09.052

Title: Gold-Based Nanomaterials for Applications in Nanomedicine
Author(s): Ashraf, S; Pelaz, B; del Pino, P; Carril, M; Escudero, A; Parak, WJ; Soliman, MG; Zhang, Q; Carrillo-Carrion, C
Source: Light-Responsive Nanostructured Systems for Applications in Nanomedicine, 370 (2016) 169-202

abstract | fulltext

In this review, an overview of the current state-of-the-art of gold-based nanomaterials (Au NPs) in medical applications is given. The unique properties of Au NPs, such as their tunable size, shape, and surface characteristics, optical properties, biocompatibility, low cytotoxicity, high stability, and multifunctionality potential, among others, make them highly attractive in many aspects of medicine. First, the preparation methods for various Au NPs including functionalization strategies for selective targeting are summarized. Second, recent progresses on their applications, ranging from the diagnostics to therapeutics are highlighted. Finally, the rapidly growing and promising field of gold-based theranostic nano-platforms is discussed. Considering the great body of existing information and the high speed of its renewal, we chose in this review to generalize the data that have been accumulated during the past few years for the most promising directions in the use of Au NPs in current medical research.

January, 2016 | DOI: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-22942-3_6

Title: Kinetics of high-temperature oxidation of (Ti,Ta)(C,N)-based cermets
Author(s): Chicardi, E; Cordoba, JM; Gotor, FJ
Source: Corrosion Science, 102 (2016) 168-177

abstract | fulltext

The kinetics of the high-temperature oxidation of titanium–tantalum carbonitride-based cermets with different Ti/Ta ratios was studied. Isothermal oxidation tests were conducted under static air for 48 h at temperatures between 700 °C and 1200 °C. The oxidation satisfied the parabolic kinetics, characteristic of the existence of a protective oxide layer. The apparent activation energy suggests the rate-controlling process during oxidation is the simultaneous inward and outward diffusion of oxygen and titanium, respectively, through the formed protective layer, consisting mainly of a rutile phase. A higher Ta(V) content in the rutile decreased the oxygen diffusivity due to the reduction of oxygen vacancy concentration.

January, 2016 | DOI: 10.1016/j.corsci.2015.10.006

Title: High temperature oxidation resistance of (Ti,Ta)(C,N)-based cermets
Author(s): Chicardi, E; Cordoba, JM; Gotor, FJ
Source: Corrosion Science, 102 (2016) 125-136

abstract | fulltext

Cermets based on titanium-tantalum carbonitride were oxidized in static air between 800 degrees C and 1100 degrees C for 48 h. The thermogravimetric and microstructural study showed an outstanding reduction in the oxidation of more than 90% when the Ta content was increased. In cermets with low Ta content, the formation of a thin CoO/Co3O4 outer layer tends to disappear by reacting with the underlying rutile phase, which emerges at the surface. However, in cermets with higher Ta content, the formation of an external titanate layer, observed even at a low temperature, appears to prevent the oxygen diffusion and the oxidation progression. 

January, 2016 | DOI: 10.1016/j.corsci.2015.10.001

Title: Influence of temperature and time on the Eu3+ reaction with synthetic Na-Mica-n (n=2 and 4)
Author(s): Garcia-Jimenez, MJ; Cota, A; Osuna, FJ; Pavon, E; Alba, MD
Source: Chemical Engineering Journal, 284 (2016) 1174-1183

abstract | fulltext

Bentonite is accepted as the best clay material for the engineered barrier of Deep Geological Repositories (DGRs). The performance of clay as the main component of the engineered barrier in the DGR has been intensively studied and the structure of the selected clay mineral play a crucial role. In this sense, a new family of synthetic swelling silicates, Na-Mica-n, with tuned layer charge (n) values between 2.0 and 4.0 per unit cell has recently been synthesized and a general synthetic method has been reported. These swelling high-charge micas could be highly valuable for the decontamination of harmful cations. The ability of these micas to immobilize Eu3+ under subcritical conditions has been probed. The adsorption was in both non-specific sites (cation exchange mechanism) and specific sites (chemical reaction or surface defects adsorption). Moreover, its adsorption capacity, under the same conditions is higher than in saponite and far superior to the bentonites. 

January, 2016 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2015.09.077

Title: Application of Prussian Blue electrodes for amperometric detection of free chlorine in water samples using Flow Injection Analysis
Author(s): Salazar, P; Martin, M; Gonzalez-Mora, JL; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
Source: Talanta, 146 (2016) 410-416

abstract | fulltext

The performance for free chlorine detection of surfactant-modified Prussian Blue screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs/PB-BZT) have been assessed by cyclic voltammetry and constant potential amperometry. The characterization of SPCEs/PB-BZT by X-ray photoemission, Raman and infrared spectroscopies confirmed the correct electrodeposition of the surfactant-modified PB film. These electrodes were incorporated in a Flow Injection device and the optimal working conditions determined as a function of experimental variables such as detection potential, electrolyte concentration or flow-rate. The sensor presented a linear response in the range 0–3 ppm free chlorine, with a sensitivity of 16.2 μA ppm−1 cm−2. The limit of detection (LOD) (S/N=3.3) and the limit of quantification (S/N=10) amounted to 8.25 and 24.6 ppb, respectively, adequate for controlling tap and drinking waters. To demonstrate the feasibility of using this free chlorine sensor for real applications possible interferences such as nitrate, nitrite and sulfate ions were successfully tested and discarded. Real free chlorine analysis was carried out in spiked tap water samples and commercial bleaches.

January, 2016 | DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2015.08.072

Title: Nanostructured Ti thin films by magnetron sputtering at oblique angles
Author(s): Alvarez, R; Garcia-Martin, JM; Garcia-Valenzuela, A; Macias-Montero, M; Ferrer, FJ; Santiso, J; Rico, V; Cotrino, J; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Palmero, A
Source: Journal of Physics D-Applied Physics, 49 (2016) 045303

abstract | fulltext

The growth of Ti thin films by the magnetron sputtering technique at oblique angles and at room temperature is analysed from both experimental and theoretical points of view. Unlike other materials deposited in similar conditions, the nanostructure development of the Ti layers exhibits an anomalous behaviour when varying both the angle of incidence of the deposition flux and the deposition pressure. At low pressures, a sharp transition from compact to isolated, vertically aligned, nanocolumns is obtained when the angle of incidence surpasses a critical threshold. Remarkably, this transition also occurs when solely increasing the deposition pressure under certain conditions. By the characterization of the Ti layers, the realization of fundamental experiments and the use of a simple growth model, we demonstrate that surface mobilization processes associated to a highly directed momentum distribution and the relatively high kinetic energy of sputtered atoms are responsible for this behaviour.

February, 2016 | DOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/49/4/045303

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