Scientific Papers in SCI

2015


Title: Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells with Tunable Structural Color
Author(s): W. Zhang, M. Anaya, G. Lozano, M.E. Calvo, M.B. Johnston, H. Míguez, H.J. Snaith
Source: Nano Letters, 15 (2015) 1698-1702

abstract | fulltext

The performance of perovskite solar cells has been progressing over the past few years and efficiency is likely to continue to increase. However, a negative aspect for the integration of perovskite solar cells in the built environment is that the color gamut available in these materials is very limited and does not cover the green-to-blue region of the visible spectrum, which has been a big selling point for organic photovoltaics. Here, we integrate a porous photonic crystal (PC) scaffold within the photoactive layer of an opaque perovskite solar cell following a bottom-up approach employing inexpensive and scalable liquid processing techniques. The photovoltaic devices presented herein show high efficiency with tunable color across the visible spectrum. This now imbues the perovskite solar cells with highly desirable properties for cladding in the built environment and encourages design of sustainable colorful buildings and iridescent electric vehicles as future power generation sources.

March, 2015 | DOI: 10.1021/nl504349z

Title: Sonogashira Cross-Coupling and Homocoupling on a Silver Surface: Chlorobenzene and Phenylacetylene on Ag(100)
Author(s): Sanchez-Sanchez, C; Orozco, N; Holgado, JP; Beaumont, SK; Kyriakou, G; Watson, DJ; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Feria, L; Sanz, JF; Lambert, RM
Source: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 137 (2015) 940-947

abstract | fulltext

Scanning tunneling microscopy, temperature-programmed reaction, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations were used to study the adsorption and reactions of phenylacetylene and chlorobenzene on Ag(100). In the absence of solvent molecules and additives, these molecules underwent homocoupling and Sonogashira cross-coupling in an unambiguously heterogeneous mode. Of particular interest is the use of silver, previously unexplored, and chlorobenzene—normally regarded as relatively inert in such reactions. Both molecules adopt an essentially flat-lying conformation for which the observed and calculated adsorption energies are in reasonable agreement. Their magnitudes indicate that in both cases adsorption is predominantly due to dispersion forces for which interaction nevertheless leads to chemical activation and reaction. Both adsorbates exhibited pronounced island formation, thought to limit chemical activity under the conditions used and posited to occur at island boundaries, as was indeed observed in the case of phenylacetylene. The implications of these findings for the development of practical catalytic systems are considered.

January, 2015 | DOI: 10.1021/ja5115584

Title: Sunlight Absorption Engineering for Thermophotovoltaics: Contributions from the Optical Design
Author(s): Miguez, H
Source: ChemSusChem, 8 (2015) 786-788

abstract | fulltext

Nowadays, solar thermophotovoltaic systems constitute a platform in which sophisticated optical material designs are put into practice with the aim of achieving the long sought after dream of developing an efficient energy conversion device based on this concept. Recent advances demonstrate that higher efficiencies are at reach using photonic nanostructures amenable to mass production and scale-up.

March, 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403361

Title: Optical Description of Mesostructured Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite Solar Cells
Author(s): Anaya, M; Lozano, G; Calvo, ME; Zhang, W; Johnston, MB; Snaith, HJ; Miguez, H
Source: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 6 (2015) 48-53

abstract | fulltext

Herein we describe both theoretically and experimentally the optical response of solution-processed organic–inorganic halide perovskite solar cells based on mesostructured scaffolds. We develop a rigorous theoretical model using a method based on the propagation of waves in layered media, which allows visualizing the way in which light is spatially distributed across the device and serves to quantify the fraction of light absorbed by each medium comprising the cell. The discrimination between productive and parasitic absorption yields an accurate determination of the internal quantum efficiency. State-of-the-art devices integrating mesoporous scaffolds infiltrated with perovskite are manufactured and characterized to support the calculations. This combined experimental and theoretical analysis provides a rational understanding of the optical behavior of perovskite cells and can be beneficial for the judicious design of devices with improved performance. Notably, our model justifies the presence of a solid perovskite capping layer in all of the highest efficiency perovskite solar cells based on thinner mesoporous scaffolds.

January, 2015 | DOI: 10.1021/jz502351s

Title: Synthesis and application of layered titanates in the photocatalytic degradation of phenol
Author(s): Ivanova, S; Penkova, A; Hidalgo, MD; Navio, JA; Romero-Sarria, F; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
Source: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 163 (2015) 23-29

abstract | fulltext

This study proposes a direct synthetic route to single titanate sheets through the mild and versatile conditions of the “chimie douce”. The stages of the production include the complexation of the titanium alkoxide precursor by benzoic acid, the formation of titanium oxo-clusters and their controlled transformation into single sheet titanates during the hydrolysis stage. The resulted material appears to be an excellent precursor for self-organized TiO2 nanotubes formation which presents an excellent activity as photocatalyst in the photo-degradation of phenol.

February, 2015 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2014.07.048

Title: Evolution of H-2 photoproduction with Cu content on CuOx-TiO2 composite catalysts prepared by a microemulsion method
Author(s): Kubacka, A; Munoz-Batista, MJ; Fernandez-Garcia, M; Obregon, S; Colon, G
Source: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 163 (2015) 214-222

abstract | fulltext

Copper oxides in contact with anatase correspond to promising materials with high activity in the photo-production of hydrogen by aqueous reforming of alcohols. By a single pot microemulsion method we obtained a series of Cu-Ti composite systems with controlled copper content in the 0-25 wt.% range. The scanning of such a wide range of composition led to the discovery of two well differentiated maxima in the photo-reaction performance. These maxima present rather high and relatively similar reaction rates and photonic efficiencies but are ascribed to the presence of different copper species. A multi-technique analysis of the materials indicates that the maxima obtained comes from optimizing different steps of the reaction; while the first would be connected with a positive effect on anatase charge handling performance the second seems exclusively related to electron capture by surface copper species.

February, 2015 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2014.08.005

Title: Laser Treatment of Ag@ZnO Nanorods as Long-Life-Span SERS Surfaces
Author(s): Macias-Montero, M; Pelaez, RJ; Rico, VJ; Saghi, Z; Midgley, P; Afonso, CN; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Borras, A
Source: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 7 (2015) 2331-2339

abstract | fulltext

UV nanosecond laser pulses have been used to produce a unique surface nanostructuration of Ag@ZnO supported nanorods (NRs). The NRs were fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at low temperature applying a silver layer as promoter. The irradiation of these structures with single nanosecond pulses of an ArF laser produces the melting and reshaping of the end of the NRs that aggregate in the form of bundles terminated by melted ZnO spherical particles. Well-defined silver nanoparticles (NPs), formed by phase separation at the surface of these melted ZnO particles, give rise to a broad plasmonic response consistent with their anisotropic shape. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in the as-prepared Ag@ZnO NRs arrays was proved by using a Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) chromophore as standard analyte. The surface modifications induced by laser treatment improve the stability of this system as SERS substrate while preserving its activity.

February, 2015 | DOI: 10.1021/am506622x

Title: Self-lubricity of WSex nanocomposite coatings
Author(s): S. Dominguez-Meister; M. Conte; A. Igartua; T.C. Rojas; J.C. Sánchez-López
Source: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 7 (2015) 7979-7986

abstract | fulltext

Transition metal chalcogenides with lamellar structure are known for their use in tribological applications although limited to vacuum due to their easy degradation in the presence of oxygen and/or moisture. Here we present a tailored WSex coating with low friction (0.07) and low wear rates (3 × 10–7 mm3 Nm–1) even in ambient air. To understand the low friction behavior and lower chemical reactivity a tribological study is carried out in a high-vacuum tribometer under variable pressure (atmospheric pressure to 1 × 10–8 mbar). A detailed investigation of the film nanostructure and composition by advanced transmission electron microscopy techniques with nanoscale resolution determined that the topmost layer is formed by nanocrystals of WSe2 embedded in an amorphous matrix richer in W, a-W(Se). After the friction test, an increased crystalline order and orientation of WSe2 lamellas along the sliding direction were observed in the interfacial region. On the basis of high angle annular dark field, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis, the release of W atoms from the interstitial basal planes of the a-W(Se) phase is proposed. These W atoms reaching the surface, play a sacrificial role preventing the lubricant WSe2 phase from oxidation. The increase of the WSe2 crystalline order and the buffer effect of W capturing oxygen atoms would explain the enhanced chemical and tribological response of this designed nanocomposite material.

April, 2015 | DOI: 10.1021/am508939s

Title: Nanocolumnar coatings with selective behavior towards osteoblast and Staphylococcus aureus proliferation
Author(s): Izquierdo-Barba, Isabel; Miguel Garcia-Martin, Jose; Alvarez, Rafael; Palmero, Alberto; Esteban, Jaime; Perez-Jorge, Concepcion; Arcos, Daniel; Vallet-Regi, Maria
Source: Acta Biomaterialia, 15 (2015) 20-28

abstract | fulltext

Bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on orthopedic implants is one of the worst scenarios in orthopedic surgery, in terms of both patient prognosis and healthcare costs. Tailoring the surfaces of implants at the nanoscale to actively promote bone bonding while avoiding bacterial colonization represents an interesting challenge to achieving better clinical outcomes. Herein, a Ti6Al4V alloy of medical grade has been coated with Ti nanostructures employing the glancing angle deposition technique by magnetron sputtering. The resulting surfaces have a high density of nanocolumnar structures, which exhibit strongly impaired bacterial adhesion that inhibits biofilm formation, while osteoblasts exhibit good cell response with similar behavior to the initial substrates. These results are discussed on the basis of a "lotus leaf effect" induced by the surface nanostructures and the different sizes and biological characteristics of osteoblasts and Staphylococcus aureus.

March, 2015 | DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2014.12.023

Title: Ca-looping for postcombustion CO2 capture: A comparative analysis on the performances of dolomite and limestone
Author(s): Valverde, JM; Sanchez-Jimenez, PE; Perez-Maqueda, LA
Source: Applied Energy, 138 (2015) 202-215

abstract | fulltext

The low cost and wide availability of natural limestone (CaCO3) is at the basis of the industrial competitiveness of the Ca-looping (CaL) technology for postcombustion CO2 capture as already demonstrated by similar to 1 Mw(t) scale pilot projects. A major focus of studies oriented towards further improving the efficiency of the CaL technology is how to prevent the gradual loss of capture capacity of limestone derived CaO as the number of carbonation/calcination cycles is increased. Natural dolomite (MgCa(CO3)(2)) has been proposed as an alternative sorbent precursor to limestone. Yet, carbonation of MgO is not thermodynamically favorable at CaL conditions, which may hinder the capture performance of dolomite. In the work described in this paper we carried out a thermogravimetric analysis on the multicyclic capture performance of natural dolomite under realistic regeneration conditions necessarily implying high calcination temperature, high CO2 concentration and fast transitions between the carbonation and calcination stages. Our study demonstrates that the sorbent derived from dolomite has a greater capture capacity as compared to limestone. SEM analysis shows that MgO grains in the decomposed dolomite are resistant to sintering under severe calcination conditions and segregate from CaO acting as a thermally stable support which mitigates the multicyclic loss of CaO conversion. Moreover, full decomposition of dolomite is achieved at significantly lower calcination temperatures as compared to limestone, which would help improving further the industrial competitiveness of the technology. 

January, 2015 | DOI:

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